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Strength of Materials
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Näkemisen geometriaa
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History to EP-Calculation

My relationship to the history as a science, is somewhat skeptical. In addition, I have reservations about several written in the name of science. Perhaps all this day is not so marvelous, as we expect it to be compared to the past?

  1.      Iron After Big Bang.

  2.      8000 BC Cave Paintings in Italy.

  3.      4000 BC Hajar al-Hubla In Lebanon.

  4.      3100 BC Stonehenge in England.

  5.      3000 BC Brazilian pyramids.

  6.      2650 - 2540 BC Cheops Pyramid Volume

  6.1    Cheops Pyramid Location.

  7.      582 - 496 BC Pythagorean Harmony

  8.      Pythagoras Findings

  9.      460 - 370 BC Democritus

10.      447 BC Parthenon Temple in Greece

11.      384 - 322 BC Aristotle.

12.      A Greek Machine 330 BC.

13.      200 - 299 BC Diophantus Epitaph.

14.      1401 - 1464 Nicholaus of Cusa.

15.      1642 - 1727 Isaac Newton

16.      Newton's Experimental Philosphy.

17.      1834-1907 Mendeleev's Predicted Elements

18.      1743 - 1794 Antoine Laurent de Lavoisier.

19.      1911 Twin Paradox.

20.      1969 The First Moon Landing.

21.      1969 A Valuable Moon Rock.

22.       2009 Nasa Erased the Original Videos.

23.       2012 The World Biggest Crane.

1.   Iron After Big Bang

Strength needs to calculate the material iron, the most common element on Earth. Iron, named steel is the material for this purpose. EP-Calculation five steps is the proportionality limit in values ​​and iron is on this step, the temperature of 4000 Kelvin. The heavier material than iron needs for formation the nuclear fusion. We stay in steel grades (S235 and S355), ie. to the temperature of 4,000 Kelvin, as the table shows. The lighter elements than steel make up 99.99997 % of the composition of stars. Heavier elements than iron are a small minority, but they are two-thirds of the elements.

The formation of metal

Nuclear reaction                                  Temperature 106 K     Pascal's triangle

0. Hydrogen => helium                                 10 - 40                                1

1. Helium => carbon, oxygen                       100 -200                       1           1

2. Carbon => neon, sodium, magnesium         800                     1           2          1

3. Neon => magnesium, silicon                      1 700                1        3            3       1

4. Oxygen => silicon, sulphur                         2 100          1         4          6          4        1

5. Silicon => titanium, Zinc, nickel, Iron          4 000      1       6          1           1         6       1


viisikulmiot.jpgPascal's triangle, the lowest row is the fifth row from the output value of 0. Row five finds the golden ratio 1.618, even the value of 1.611 is slightly different.

The fifth element describes the pentagon where the golden ratio occurs in many. This is described in visual geometry and strength calculation. (985)

2.   Cave Paintings in Italy 8000 BC

200,000 - 300,000 cave paintings at the same location. Below the cave painting, dating from approximately 8,000 BC to the Val camonica, Italy. It appears to depict two beings in protective suits holding strange implements. They do not seem to fit their time period? The globe shaped helmets emitting rays of light?



The stone carvings of Val Camonica constitute one of the largest collections of prehistoric petroglyphs in the world.The collection was recognized by Unesco in 1979 and was Italy's first recognized World Heritage Site.Unesco has formally recognized more than 140,000 figures and symbols, but new discoveries have increased the number of catalogued incisions to between 200,000 and 300,000. The petroglyphs are spread on all surfaces of the valley, but concentrated in the areas of Darfo Boario Terme, Capo di Ponte, Nadro, Cimbergo and Paspardo.

- Good round shape - the Sun - the Moon - Pregnant woman? - Turtles - What else?


What if Pablo Picasso had painted the rock paintings? Your opinion of this 10,000 years later?


3.   Hajar al-Hubla

Stone of the Pregnant Woman


The established dimensions of the rectangular limestone block are:

  • Width at base     4 m
  • Width at top        4.14–5.29 m
  • Height                 4.21–4.32 m
  • Length               20.31 – 20.76 m
  • Density                2.6–2.8 g/cm³

The monolith is named after a pregnant woman who, as local legend has it. A monolith is a geological feature consisting of a single massive stone or rock, such as some mountains, or a single piece of rock placed as, or within, a monument. The Roman stone block still lies in the ancient quarry at a distance of 900 m from the Heliopolis temple complex. According to their calculations, the block weighs 1,000.12 t.

The largest cut stone

A second ancient monolith was discovered in the same quarry in the 1990s. With its weight estimated at 1,242 t, it even surpasses the dimension of the well-known Stone of the Pregnant Woman. The established dimensions of the rectangular limestone block:

    Pituus              19.5–20.5 m          Length
    Leveys             4.34–4.56 m          Width
    Korkeus           4.5 m                      Height
    Tiheys               2.6–2.8 g/cm³       Density


The biggest wonder causes, how the other stones have been able to carry one kilometer to the temple area and to raise there, 11 meters in height. Today, we have no lifting device under these conditions to lift these stones. What about the working methods at the time and how we would today do it by hands.  (928)


4.   Stonehenge

3100 BC.

stonehenge_1.jpgStonehenge is located on salisbury Plain in southern England and is one of the most famous prehistoric sites in the world. It appears have been both a religiouscenter and an astronomical observatory. It looks that the stonehenge was built in 3 phases.

I write of pyramids in Egypt and of other pyramids worldwide. In China, Egypt, South-America and of some constructions here in Finland etc.  Now I write of one famous place construction in England. Mathematics will of course include in this context, especially when Cheops pyramid in Egypt.  In this text, the more important thing is the dating of the construction phases.

The First Construction Phase

This was made about 3100 BC the first monument consisted of a circular bank and ditch diameter of 110 m. Although there is evidence for activity both before and afterwards on the site. Note the pyramids in Egypt and dating back as first constructions to build up a pyramid. The same kind of banks have been found in Eastern-Europe. The same can say of pyramids which are like a belt around the world.

The Second Construction Phase

There is no longer visible evidence of the second phase. They were some wooden constructions inside the ditch.

The third Construction Phase

Made about 2600 BC. It should be noted Cheops pyramid and Stonehenge, or both are done for centuries precision at the same time. Is it really, it's time to show?

5.   Brazilian pyramids 3000 BC

Most of us know of the three great pyramids at Egypt, Giza and the ones found in Mexico, but most have no idea, that pyramids can be found all over the globe. Some of the pyramids have been built before the pyramids in Egypt. The article mentioned pyramids are still not the world's oldest, even writing this suggests. A lot of older have proven found from the earth eg. in Japan


Archaeologists have discovered the world's oldest pyramids - on the Atlantic coast of southern Brazil (Santa Catarina). The Brazilian examples are up to 3,000 years older than the ones in Central America.

Dating from 3000BC, the oldest of the Brazilian pyramids predate the earliest Egyptian example by several hundred years. The construction techniques were also markedly different, each Egyptian pyramid being built in one operation, while the Brazilian ones were each built in several phases, possibly over many decades or even centuries. And, unlike the Egyptian stone pyramids, the Brazilian ones were built exclusively of sea shells.

That is why archaeologists in the past had never realised what they were. For years Brazilian prehistorians had thought that the sites were simply immense piles of domestic rubbish from settlements.

But research carried out over the past four years has revealed that the "piles of ancient rubbish" were in fact deliberately built square structures of roughly pyramidic design. The archaeologists estimate that originally there were around a thousand Brazilian pyramids - some apparently 5,000 years old, others less ancient. (949)


6.   Volume of a Pyramid

1/3 × Base Area × Height (H)


Cheops Pyramidpyramidi_egypti2.jpg

                                      V= 1/3 x 230.3 m x 230.3 m x 146.41 m

                                      V = 2 588 436 m3

Visual geometry

                            V = 1.254 x 1.06 = 2.588

                            ( length x width x height x time x fatiquing of 3d + time)

                             (1,25 = 1/4)

                             (1.032 = 1.06)

Surface Area of the Pyramid

All side faces are the same:

Base Area + 1/2 × Perimeter of Base × Slant Length (L)

                              A = 230.3 m x 230.3 m + 1/2  x( 4 x 230.3 m) x 186.3 m

                              A =  138848 m2

Golden ratio

                      (186,3 m/146.41 m = 1.2724    =>  1.27242 = 1.618 )

6.1   Cheops Pyramid Location

The Great Pyramid 2560–2540 BC (the Pyramid of Khufu, or Cheops in Greek) in the Giza, Egypt, demonstrates the remarkable character of its placement on the face of the Earth. The Pyramid lies in the center of gravity of the continents. It also lies in the exact center of all the land area of the world, dividing the earth's land mass into approximately equal quarters. This is visual geometry, which the ancient people carried out through monumental engineering structure.


Pyramids location on the largest mass concentration on the Earth

7.   Pythagorean Harmony

According to a Finnish emeritus professor interpretation, the Pythagorean harmony joins to the society and interaction between people, which he certainly also meant. This overrides the vision of Pythagoras world affairs. The idea of ​​Pythagoras' mathematical work as a peace activist seems a singular interpretation. A man of that era did not consider this kind of things. Human death or enslavement did not produce the problemPythagoras was a creative person, a person who has generally focused on the development of ideas. He played the instrument, when he found the music scale relations. Pythagoras also a high degree of certainty killed his student, who became interested in the circular form and figures, which did not conform to the simple ratio of harmony. This can be read in the literature. Pythagoras himself experienced a violent death, and he and the students were burnt alive to his house. Of his death, there is also another kind of description, based on the different sources of information.

Stephen Hawking Pythagorean interpretation. Pythagoras believed that everything was possible to describe in mathematical languageHe developed an all-encompassing "the harmony of spheres", where in mathematical language was expressed the Greeks traditional belief that the complete forms are only the balls and circles. He found the music to math, and thought everything was possible to describe as the music's scale. Stephen Hawking says, the idea was a dead duck, because instead of harmony led to the deplorable incomplete figures. The Catholic Church has banned the use of the pentagon. Is this the reason Stephen Hawkings does not mention the pattern? We know Stephen Hawking received the honorary award granted by the Vatican and he took it.

Pythagoras explored the starry sky, and made the observation, the Earth's round shape and it circumventing the sun. The final adoption of this observation occurred 2000 years later in Europe. 2300 years later, science has not been able to understand that Pythagoras was right in a music scale-like mathematical scale. The relative pitches of the musical scale of Pythagoras, will be compensated in the Equivalen Proportional Calculation on basic standard series numbers. The key scale refers to a set of tone frequencies, which are available at any one time. This better Pythagoras was not able to express the harmony of the figures, it can be active at one time, only one scale. Of the factors the 1,25 is perhaps the most important in determining the Golden Ratio 1.618. The factor is the distance that multiples the distance, a value exists. (961)

8.   Pythagoras Findings 582 - 496 BC

pythagoras.jpgThe honor of the philosophy discovery has given to the Pythagoreans, who propably first used the term. The essence of philosophy they explained through Olympian games, which arrived in athletics, vendors and viewers. Of these three gategories, the most noble were viewers who were comparable to those philosophers.

Pythagoras     - "That one who knows the Sun as a God"

Photo Wikipedia

It is difficult distinguish between the truth and stories related to Pythagoras, because the mystery has wrapped around him. Sure is that Pythagoras developed the idea of the logic numbers, starting the first heyday of mathematics.

This is the idea of the todays blind men, because pyramids were thousands years old when Pythagoras lived and some our known books had also dating thousands years back to the history. Numbers were not used only to calculate and list, but they began to appreciate the numbers for their own sake. This meant, Pythagoras studied numbers, their certain properties and numbers inter- dependies and regulatiers. He was thus the EP-calculation pioneer as a predecessor.

Pythagoras studied generally mathematics, music scale and astronomy. His findings suggest that the digits were there, despite the tangible world, and people's observations unreliability (this day makes the mind to increase the scientific dishonesty) did not distort their features. As a result, mathematics narrative truth was independent of other opinions and prejudices. They were also more absolute, than any previous information. Mathematics did have a long history before Pythagoras. There are good reasons to believe that Pythagoras never dealt with mathematics at all. According to Aristotle: the so-called Pythagoreans, who were the first to take up mathematics, not only advanced this subject, but saturated with it, they fancied that the principles of mathematics were the principles of all things. Aristotle - Metaphysics 1 -5 cc. 350 BC. They therefore believed that mathematics can describe the phenomena of the world ( later physics, strength calculation etc. ), and this continued in certain numbers, such as the golden section ratio had a special meaning. Was this the wrong idea, this we look from multiple perspectives. In any case, this supported EP-calculation, because the both have the idea of the proportionality around us. By knowing one, the others are known, is included in the idea.

Pythagoras studied in several areas of science and art, thus being able to perceive the picture of the world in a different way. World view of Pythagoras was acquired by traveling 20 years all over the world and it is estimated the mathematical knowledge came from the Egyptians and Babylonians. Egyptian pyramids were already old at that time, including the golden ratio. The conclusion of this, perhaps the information of the golden ratio conveyed to Europe with Pythagoras. After travelling, he decided to go back to the island of Samos.

The Egyptians and Babylonians had progressed from simple calculations to perform the calculation of the most demanding and challenging book accounting systems for trade and taxation purposes. They also planned and implemented elaborate buildings.. Mathematics joined to the solutions of practical problems, such as in the annual flooding of the Nile and the re-determination of boundaries. The word geometry comes therefore of the measurement of land.

Pythagoras discovered that the calculations were always made at the same formula, which gave the correct answer to the task, but no one questioned or examined the patterns of their underlying logic. In the cultures, it was important that the formula worked for calculating, but not why it did so. The modern calculation has a lot the same formulation of the question. We know the bending formula gives every time the calculation result which is equal with the practice. When calculating other tasks, we choose the new formula and new required values. We consider it important and valuable manage the formulas. How the nature works, does not interest us. Perhaps there is no need for a large amount of formulas, by understanding the natural behavior?

A few generations later, the Pythagoras known ball shape of the Earth was a high probability an accepted fact in Athens until the information was lost about two thousand years? Did this information come from a trip to Egypt? Later the information is found to disappear in time, such as the Earth orbit around the sun. The same thing happened in three-dimensional drawing, which was known in Greek, even though the paintings were all time drawn up in the eyes. Proportionality, ie. the "godliness" of figures was aware to Pythagoras, as it probably was long before Pythagoras, but still it is not detected to believe in science. Probably Pythagoras had heard of ball lightning, which everyone knows and many people have seen. Some scientists do not still believe in them, saying they are optical delusions. The first ever optical spectrum of what appears to have been a ball lightning event was published in January 2014 and included a video at high frame rate (Wikipedia).

Mathematics in the Middle Ages dates from this era, which was reflective philosophizing. Mathematics was not for mathematical problems in a practical level, which the Roman numerals did not support. The think of putting the numbers to calculation is uncomfortable, especially the absence of the number zero. Still the concept of the empty place in calculation, was well-known.


1. Pythagoras knew the golden ratio, which joined eg. to the Great Pyramid of Giza

2. In nature the ratio of 1.618 can be found in almost everything 

3. Number five is important and pentagon was the symbol to Pythagoreans. Pythagoras did not know this, but five is the proportionality limit in phenomena. Five fingers, five toes, and all found number five was the evidence of that etc. (1015)

9.   Democritus 460 BC - 370 BC

demokritos.jpgHe wrote on Babylon and Meroe; visited Egypt, and Diodorus Siculus states that he lived there for five years. He himself declared that among his contemporaries none had made greater journeys, seen more countries, and met more scholars than himself. He particularly mentions the Egyptian mathematicians, whose knowledge he praised.

Theophrastus, too, spoke of him as a man who had seen many countries. During his travels, according to Diogenes Laërtius, he became acquainted with the Chaldean magi.

Democritus was the first who realized, the Milky Way consists in reality of the light of distant stars.

The theory of the atomists appears to be more nearly aligned with that of modern science than any other theory of antiquity. However, the similarity with modern concepts of science can be confusing when trying to understand where the hypothesis came from.

"The theory of Democritus and Leucippus held that everything is composed of "atoms", which are physically, but not geometrically, indivisible; that between atoms, there lies empty space; that atoms are indestructible; have always been, and always will be, in motion; that there are an infinite number of atoms, and kinds of atoms, which differ in shape, and size."

With this as a basis to the physical world, Democritus could explain all changes in the world as changes in motion of the atoms, or changes in the way that they were packed together. This was a remarkable theory which attempted to explain the whole of physics based on a small number of ideas and also brought mathematics into a fundamental physical role since the whole of the structure proposed by Democritus was quantitative and subject to mathematical laws. Another fundamental idea in Democritus's theory is that nature behaves like a machine, it is nothing more than a highly complex mechanism.


Bertrand Russell states that they just hit on a lucky hypothesis, only recently confirmed by evidence

One theory: The Library of Alexandria, Eqypt?

10.   Parthenon Temple 447 BC

History of use of the ratio ɸ (phi)

ɸ the 16th letter of Greek alphabet, which is used to identified's the ratio 1.618. In Egypt the ratio of 1.618 was used in building the pyramids.



Phidias 490 BC- 430 BC Parthenon temple statues

Phidias (Feidias) was an ancient Greek classical period, the most famous sculptor and respected champion. His sculptures have been preserved only in copies. Feidias worked on the Parthenon temple sculptures working since about 447 BC.



The first Stone was placed at 447 BC

Seemingly casual placement, despite the positioning of the buildings in the Acropolis of Athens is said to comply with the laws of mathematics and geometry. The both branches of science had advanced, and the laws revered almost religious devotion, as they were considered to reflect the metaphysical ideals. Work based on the golden ratio of the Parthenon temple. Mathematics and geometry of the laws applied in such a way that the Parthenon became a well-balanced and pleasing whole. It allowed the so-called. "Optical corrections." Columns swelled a little in the middle, the outer poles stand tilted inwards and was raised from the center. This is so that the sighting of the building consisted of a compact and harmonious. (948)

11.   Aristotle BC 384 - 322 BC

aristotle.jpgAristotle has been mentioned to be the father of the logics. The calculation follows his approach put forward by the way, by taking the known issues and work your way towards it, what is the nature of the more obvious and well-known. Aristotle world view includes water, fire, air and earth, which are placed in a natural place. This was the idea of ​​a modern world view of his time. The Equivalent Proportional Calculation, has the similar idea, but described to this day. In the calculation, the value is placed to its native place of the product space.

The sculpture in Paris, the Louvre Museum

The calculation has the same meaning with Aristotle, in accordance with the expressions in his time. Aristotle teaching of the logic is continuing in the calculation. We think, perhaps, why we remember the old. We err badly in this idea. We will visit through my pages, which you do not otherwise understand. Just think, if you like the philosopher Aristotle would be in our midst.  (921)

12.   A Greek Machine 330 BC


In the picture Greek engineer named Diades made machine 330 BC. Note the rollers in the middle. Is the machine a ramin which heavy block is mounted on top of the device, and the use was break the wall. with heavy hammer to install the unit on and its use was to break the wall. He wrote a book, which deals among other things the construction of machines. Perhaps we do not think the oldest writings of machine building so old as they are.
In reality, this is the begin of what I write later. (951)

13.   Diophantus Epitaph

An epitaph is a short text honoring a deceased person. The Greek father of algebra, Diophantus of Alexandria born sometime between AD 200 - 214, and died aged 84 sometime between AD 285 - 299. The puzzle implies that Diophantus lived to be 84 years old. However, the accuracy of the information cannot be independently confirmed. One of the problems (sometimes called his epitaph) states: By the same way, as the headstone says Diophantus age, nature says things through the data. We determine first Diophantus age.

   'Here lies Diophantus,' the wonder behold.
    Through art algebraic, the stone tells how old:
    'God gave him his boyhood one-sixth of his life,
    One twelfth more as youth while whiskers grew rife;
    And then yet one-seventh ere marriage begun;
    In five years there came a bouncing new son.
    Alas, the dear child of master and sage

After attaining half the measure of his father's life chill fate took him. After consoling his fate by the science of numbers for four years, he ended his life.'

L/6 of his time life he spent as the boy

L/12 he lived to youth

L/7 he lived before getting married

5 years later born his boy

L/2 was the age of the boy

4 years went before he himself died

L = L/6 + L/12 + L/7 + 5 + L/2 + 4

L = 14L/84 + 7L/84 + 12L/84 + 5 + 42L/84 + 4


L = 75L/84 + 9

3/28 L = 9 => L = 28/3 x 9 = 84 years

His boy was 42 year old when died and Diofantos 84 years. The example shows the way to determine the relative lengths of life and how such a task can be solved. Little is known about the life of Diofantos, but the age is known carved into the stone.

14.   Nicholaus of Cusa 1401 - 1464

nicholaus_cusanus.jpgA cycloid is the curve traced by a point on the rim of a circular wheel as the wheel rolls along a straight line. The cycloid was first studied by Nicholas of Cusa and later by meresenne.

Nicholas of Cusa made ​​his contribution to the mathematics of evolution, by developing the concepts of the infinitesimal and of relative motion. Nicolaus Cusanus gave his contributions to mathematics, relative movement and the immense importance.



The relative motion appears in this figure, of which more later

The celestial bodies are not strictly spherical, nor are their orbits circular.

Predating Kepler, Cusanus said that no perfect circle can exist in the universe.

Was the first to use concave lenses to correct myopia.

He influenced Giordano Bruno by denying the finiteness of the universe and the Earth's exceptional position in it (being not the center of the universe, and in that regard equal in rank with the other stars).

15.   Isaac Newton (1642 - 1727)


Strong religious - Alchemist - Philosopher - Astronomer - Physicist - Mathematician

Had a large collection of occult writings

Parliamentarians, but not an active member

Suffered from mental health problems all his life. Above all, introduced the gravitational and laws of motion. The Equivalent Proportional Calculation uses the ratio of gravity. Similarly, the concept of distance from the square will become clear.

Isaac Newton - Wikipedia

The story goes that a falling apple helped Newton in developing his theory of gravity, and the laws of motion. When is known the length of moon track and the cycle time, can be inferred the moon falling toward the Earth - one mm per second.

Newton concluded the power to be inversely proportional to the distance between the objects. This can calculate by physics formulas, without being able to lead the idea to other things. The Equivalent Proportional Calculation makes of things a calculating reality without formulas.

Isaac Newton was not the true one, which you may well conclude. By this way one's creates great ideas, for example, by being a mystic or an alchemist. He is valued to be the world's eminent scientific man in many directions. (927)

16.   Newton's Experimental Philosophy


Only those reasons are acceptable, which are necessary to explain the phenomena.

Similar phenomena should always be explained, to the extent possible, the same reason

Such properties of objects that can not increase or decrease and belonging to all objects, that can do some tests, must be regarded as belonging to all objects in general.

In the experimental philosophy deducted laws of phenomena, the status is kept despite at an opposing hypotheses, exactly or approximately the right until they confirm the other phenomena appear in whole or in that they are inclined exceptions. The hypothesis can not weaken the conclusion drawn by experience.

These apply to today and the future.

17.   Mendeleev's Predicted Elements

dmitri_mendelejev.jpgIn the early days chemists discovered that the substance can not be confused with each other at random. Certain relationships were maintained when mixed with substances. This was evidence on behalf of atoms. Atomic Weights did not receive attention, while they were difficult to measure. Atomic weight at first had no discernible congruence. This was when the observations were only sixty for all elements. It showed that the atomic weight had not to do with the chemical property. Russian Dimitri Mendeleev (1834-1907) graduated a chemist, and began the state's payroll classified as oils.

In this work, he was suddenly reminded of classified materials, including the elements. He placed the atomic weights of the substancesAssumed that some elements were not found and some atomic weights to false. Thus he got the elements to locate in the regular places. We are familiar with the periodic table of elements. The Proportional Equivalent Calculation is much the same with the periodic table of elements. Every phenomenon, and even product has its own place in the value space.  (910)

18.   Antoine Laurent de Lavoisier

antoine_laurent_lavoisier.jpgFrench chemist (26.08 1743 - 08.08 1794), published the law of conservation of mass. Information is important for formula E = m c2 terms. Recognized and named oxygen in 1778, demonstrating experimentally the combustion process, where the combustible material and oxygen recombinated.

He first of the all showed up, all different parts are the same entity. The rocks, trees and all the world were the same entity. This he did consciously seeking to explain all the experiments in a single theory.

Metal Subject's Slow Burning, Rusting


De Lavoisier was interested to study the long-lasting corrosion of metal piece. He was interested to know the weight after corrosion, was that more or less.



a) the subject weighs less

b) the subject weighs more

c) the weight will not change

Of the photograph can see how the fender has corroded. At the same time the material has lost its strength. These are not corroded in a closed system to ascertain the weight. Antoine Laurent de Lavoisier was not merely guessing the weight change. He set up to the living room a fully closed system. Experiments, they speed up - with his wife - increased different materials, warmed, and finally burned the material to speed up the event. After each experiment was observed the same. The piece weighed moreThe increased amount of weight they were able to determine of air space.  (924)

19.   Twin Paradox

aikadilaatio_099995_c.jpgIn 1911, Paul Langevin gave an example by describing the story of a traveler making a trip at a Lorentz factor of γ = 100 (99.995% the speed of light). The traveler remains in a projectile for one year of his time, and then reverses direction. Upon return, the traveler will find that he has aged two years, while 200 years have passed on the Earth.

Max von Laue (1911, 1913) elaborated on Langevin's explanation, using Minkowski's spacetime formalism. He wrote that the asymmetric aging is completely accounted for by the fact that the astronaut twin travels in two separate frames, while the Earth twin remains in one frame, and the time of acceleration can be made arbitrarily small compared with the time of inertial motion. Eventually, Lord Halsbury and others removed any acceleration by introducing the "three-brother" approach. The traveling twin transfers his clock reading to a third one, traveling in the opposite direction.  (926)

20.   The First Moon Landing 1969

Apollo 11 was the first spaceflight that landed the humans on the moon. It was the fifth manned Apollo-program spaceflight and the third on the moon orbit. Apollo 11 fullfilled President Kennydy's 1961 set target to beat the super power of the Soviet Union in space race. This was supposed to take place before the year 1970.


On the basis of the space flights, the computer programs could be very simple, but at the time the machines took their first steps.


Mankind taking the first steps in painting 10,000 years ago, the subjects responded to this time. The human imagination is amazing, so in the past than in present time. EPC calculation (the same meaning calculation) is in this case at the same point. Why the old time would not be well-known of things, if also spaceflights were known.

21.   A Valuable Moon Rock 1969

A valuable Moon rock from The United States was a worthless piece of wood. The museum of Amsterdam presented Moonstone is a worthless piece of wood. The moon rock was originally received from the former Dutch Prime Minister Willem Drees, Ambassador to the United States in 1969.

When the stone was put up the Rijks museum, many experts doubted the authenticity of the stone. The independent study of a matchbox-size sample, discovered it of piece of wood. The museum was assured the item of 50 000 €, the event of a declaration that its worthless. U.S. Space Administration Nasa donated Moonstones to a number of countries and this happened after made moon landing.


The fossilized pieces of wood was not possible separate from moon rocks. Still it was possible to visit to Moon by 60's technique. What methods were examined for fossils and what was NASA's conclusion of the stones, is not known. Moon rocks were a proof of the moon landing. If this piece of wood is not from the Earth, the matter becomes more complicated. The case proves to be possible to get tangled up in the samples. In any case, NASA's way to examine the samples, gives a strange impression. Also a lot of other donated samples are lost. The reason given is, for example, the location is not known. (975)

22.   Nasa Erased the Original Videos

Nasa has accidentally destroyed the original moon walking  videos. The US space

agency Nasa had to admit on thursday, the original video material from the first walk

on the moon has probably desroyed by accident.

Helsingin Sanomat 16.7 2009 


They were probably destroyed during a period when NASA was erasing old magnetic tapes and reusing them to record satellite data. This was unfortunate, because some of the parties do not believe the moon landing. The lost data took the evidence of the landing and does not diminish the doubts.

Absence of the videos does not prove the moon hoax. Nor does the fact that the footage has not publicly disclosed. Pictures of astronauts' faces, Earth photos on the way to the Moon or from the Moon.

It is only certified the footage was not valued, because otherwise the would not be able to disappear. USA is the world's most powerful state and the sovereign operator. Nasa is not looking the culprit for this unfortunate loss of data. (1006)

23.  The  World Biggest Crane 2012

The fixed dual-beam gantry crane with the lifting capacity at 20,000 MT. Yantai Raffles Shipyard (YRS),in Shandong Province China.


20,000 metric tons, By gCaptain On

“If you can handle the larger blocks, 15,000t-16,000t, you can chop up a semi-submersible offshore platform into two pieces: lower pontoon columns and an upper deck box” as Brian Chang, owner of Yantai Raffle shipyards, told the industry mag Cranes Today.

Baalbek, Lebanon 2014

Still the world biggest crane is not capable to transport the biggest monolith in the known history. This because the crane has a fixex construction and can not move. A third ancient monolith was discovered in the same quarry (as the stone of pregnant woman) in 2014 by the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut. Its weight is estimated at around 1650t, making it the largest stone ever carved by human hands. The photo of the Stone of the Pregnant woman is an an example of the measures, not the biggest monolith. (952)


  • 19.6 m long
  • 6 m wide
  • at least 5.5m high

Stone of the pregnant woman

21.6 2018*08:00