- Kari kolehmainen Samaa tarkoittava suhdelaskenta

# Basics to EP-Physiology

## Fysiologian toiset perusteet

1.        Pentagon Continuum

2.        Physiology and its Proportionality

3.        Five Elements

4.        Human Body

4.1      Height of a Man

4.2      Navel Location

4.3      Elbow Location Humans.

4.4      Human Head Height and Width Ratio.

5.        Human Body Proportions

6.        Hand Dimensions of the Glove

7.        Human Body Weight

7.1      Human Weight as ingredients

7.2      Silver Water

....................

17.        Body mass index BMI.

18.        Natural Walking Speed

18.1      Physical Pendulum

18.2      Walking Speed

19.        Energy Cost for Obese

20.        Bending Generally

........

31.       Physiological Bending.

32.       Missing Moment of the Wire

33.       Human Age Performance

34.       Cooper Test Table Men.

35.       Running a Race

36.       Commercialized Athletic Sport.

37.       Running by Examining

38.       Time Comparison in Sport

39.       The Shadow of Run Event

50.        Fibonacci Numbers, 200 m WR

51.        Time the Fourth Dimensionality

51.        Shot Put

52.        Long Jump Records

53.        Bob Beamon Long Jump Calculation

54.        Probability of the Same Date of Birth.

55.        Pyramid Training

## 1.   Pentagon Continuum

Starfishes (Asteroidea) are echinoderms belonging to the marine invertebrates. Their body shape of a star, which usually has five points, or a multiple of five. They do not have the brain, and head. Historically, sea stars are among the first-born, which in this context is noteworthy.

The most widely accepted theory is that modern humans evolved on the African savannah about 200 000-250 000 years ago. In humans, the brain and limbs evolved, enabling it to handle tools more conveniently than any other species of animal.

Leonardo da Vinci - Vitruvian man

"The more things change, the similar they remain."

The Ambrose Swasey Professor of Physics, Lawrence Krauss, Case Western Reserve University. (956)

## 2.   Physiology and its proportionality

In the Equivalent Proportional Calculation matter, physics, and physiology are equivalent. This because laws originate from the Big Bang. For example time joins to the sport. According to the current comprehension, there were no time before Big Bang. We do time comparisons of the World Records' being born before and in future. Also we do studies of National Records (in Finland) and of global World Records.

We study World Records in the Berlin MM-competitions and in the Beijing Olympics. In both competitions born the new 100 and 200 m World Records. How results changed calculation or did they? These and much other things join to the physiology heading. Important is to observe the steel's deflection and fatiguing of the sportsman are equivalent by calculating and through the patterns. Visual geometry (phi-geometry) indicates to be equivalent in connection with the previous.

## 3.   Five Elements

Water - Wood - Fire - Earth - Metal

Sometimes translated as Five Elements, the Five Phases, the Five Agents, the Five Movements, and the Five Steps/Stages. In the Chinese worldview and philosophy, the five elements are key components. Chinese worldview of things were born of energy (gin), passes through five stages. This is an old belief, which has no Western equivalent. The five elements are energy moving from one place to another, or phases. Energy can not be destroyed and the universe, the energy balance is an essential part of the events in a different form. Compare this with the formula E = m c2.

The five element theory extends to prehistoric period. As a small observation, the theory was originally written in the form of oracle writing.

- The figure is in China about 6 000 years ago.

- Pythagora use the patterns four thousand years later.

- The Proportional Equivalent Calculation has the pattern six thousand years later.

The photo of Wikipedia

The calculation has the idea, that everything is explained by the formula E = m c2. Energy bubble that bursts and forms the world. This explanation, is currently given by the most knowledgeable scientists. According to Chinese thinking, all the phenomena of the world could be divided into the five elements. We will be in the Chinese astrology, which is familiar to many Westerners. Among the peoples of the Far East, the five elements are an integral part of thinking. The course of life described the five elements as dressing, eating, martial arts, medicine, astronomy, time course, building and construction, at the funeral and religious rites.

Thousands of years later, can detect the equivalence of the Pythagorean way of thinking through the pentagon, which he regarded as a divine pattern. By default, he was informed of pentagon, on his visit to Egypt, where he met with the Egyptian scholars. Pentagon presents the golden section ratio of 1.618  as the calculation shows. (505)

## 4.1   Height of a Man

It is said of variety patterns and numbers them having nothing for the reality. The same is said of number five which joins to pentagon pattern. Pythagoras held those both as a sacred number and pattern.

EP-calculation idea is that it is not necessarily to see the calculated. For example the skeletal length is 175.4 cm. There is need to know what has been the navel height in a person 's lifetime. The length may be scaled with a drawing program or calculating it in accordance with the upper example.

The skeleton length of 175.4 cm is the well-known data, which an unknown location of its navel is calculated from the heels.

175.4 cm / 1.618 cm = 108 cm

By knowing the navel location, the height of a man is;

108 cm x 1.618 cm = 175.4 cm

## We are carrier for the Golden Ratio 1.618

By scaling the measure 67 cm with a drawing program you get the whole, in the image above it is 175.4 cm.

Calculation on this page has been EP-Physiology, but also visual geometry. All animals have equivalent ratios as we humans have. Not only humans and animals, because also dead machine components have the same.

## 4.2   Navel Location

When measuring the navel position, have a good think about where the navel is located in the normal-weighted body, if it hangs over the abdomen towards the ground. Also the normal-weighted body structure abnormalities, so no exact measure is not for the navel. Anyway nature is full of abnormality, even on a large scale the nature follows its handbook which the EP-calculation defines by calculations.

The navel position is relative, ie. the location is associated with the length of a personSome people measure variesWe calculate the proportionality having a less than 5% accuracy. For example, navel location of a 180 cm long person may differ a few centimeters from the calculatedThere are people who have disproportionately long or short legsNeither different dimensions are not optimal and can in some cases this can be deduced of walking.

## Leonardo da Vinci

Leonardo da Vinci investigatethe human dimensions.

Painting:

Leonardo da Vinci - Marcus Vitruvius Pollio

Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (born c. 80–70 BC, died after c. 15 BC) was a Roman writer, architect and engineer. (1083)

4.3   Elbow Location Humans

In a human body the belly-button is not the only part of the body, carrying out the dimension ratio phi (1.618). Measure the length of your arm and check the elbow location.

If the arm length of 71 cm, the length from fingertip to elbow is 44 cm.
71 cm / 44 cm= 1.6(18)
EP-calculation gives the natural strength based explanation to the ratio.

## 4.4   Human Head Height and Width Ratio

Measure the width and height of your head to get the likely ratio of a / b = 1.6.

- The head and other body parts will be pictured in correct proportion

- The strength has the measure of the ratio of the universe

- Beauty has a well-proportioned size in picture

The Golden Ratio is omnipresent

(929)

## 5.   The Human Body Proportions

Leonardo da Vinci observed the ratio of 1.618 and to it related higher things of which he sent a message to future generations in many ways.

The calculation introduces Leonardo da Vinci's study of the human body. In this case, Vitruvius man and a ratio of 1.618 become familiar. The proportions of the human body allows the global garment manufacture for billions of people around the globe. Manufacture of wearing apparel has the same idea as the calculation has. By knowing the value of the product, you have a high probability of other values ​​of similar products. The human can think of variable dimensions, but this is not so. We are having examples of how relations are formed in humans and devices. What about the materials, are we different engines?

The unit circle (d = 1), the surface area 0,785 units

- There is ask of the area

## 12 * 3,14 / 4 = 0,785

Iron, the specific gravity 0.787

- weight and pressure on surface area

The average of the figures

(0,785 + 0,787) / 2 = 0,786

0,7862* 1,618     =      0,618 x 1,618   =  1

A value of 1 corresponds to the human length, wherein the location of the navel may be indicated by a factor of 1.618. Having the same idea, the specific gravity of the iron, the unit area of ​​the circle and the human navel can be measured by a factor of 1.618 of the nominal value of 1. Strength and power in a matter is determined on the basis of the information described later. Physiology of the human body has the same meaning and behavior with material like iron (steel). This is an undeniable reality presented by the calculation. (36)

## 6.   Hand Dimensions of the Glove

Leonardo da Vince studied human proportions, finding the golden ratio of 1.618 via possibility to identify the human proportions. This gives the possibility to manufacture the global clothing industry products. From the clothes can move to other products and in those products occurring dimensions.

The picture shows a close-fitting winter glove, which shows the length 21 cm between the thumb and little finger.

Glove corresponds to the shape of a hand, flattened onto the plane. Length from the index finger top to little finger top is:

21 cm / 1.618 = 13 cm

## Hand width

13 cm / 1,618 = 8 cm

## Glove Width

The glove width is 10 cm in the picture. Hand width is obtained by a factor of 1.25.

10 cm / 1.25 = 8 cm

## Gloves length

1.1 x 21 = ab. 23 - 24 cm.

## 7.1   Human Weight as ingredients

A person body weight of 100 kg (1 kN) consists of; Oxygen 65 kg,  18 kg of carbon, hydrogen 10 kg, 3 kg of nitrogen, 2 kg of lime and 1 kg of phosphorus. Missing 1 kg contains iron, tin, gold and silver vanishingly small amounts. In addition, the 25 elements. potassium, sulfur, chlorine, sodium, zinc, magnesium, manganese, copper, cobalt, molybdenum, nickel, aluminum, chromium, titanium, silicon, rubidium, lithium, arsenic, fluorine, bromine, iodine, selenium, boron, barium, and strontium.

The use of human body materials have the similar physical laws, than the structure of the machine. Bending, compression, tensile, buckling, lateral-torsional buckling (swinging), lubrication, cooling, etc.

By breathing, we will get oxygen and nitrogen, but nitrogen returns without use.

Hemoglobin in the blood contains iron. Iron deficiency is known as a "sickness".

Our food consists of carbon compounds, so we include carbon.

Hydrogen in us, is in the water which is oxygen and nitrogen compound.

Brown hair => copper, cobalt and iron

Gray and white hair => a lot of nickel

Tin => not known

Light hair => probably of titanium

Molybdenum => red hair color

Our bodies, what we see of ourselves are built of protons and neutrons, consisting of 13.7 billion years ago arising quarks. In the same context, consisted the legalism (laws) to mathematical calculation. The physical body described in this way, is like the machine description of its materials. We come where from the machines comes, of the necessary minerals obtained from the ground.

## 7.2   Silver Water

One particular product is a silver water, which is used for the treatment of infectious diseases and prevention. Silver water works against viruses, bacteria and fungi. Product manufacturing in Finland oversees the Department of Chemistry of the University of Kuopio. Foods contain silver e.g. 0.3 ppm in flour, bran 1 ppm, milk 25 .. 30 ppm, 40 ppb in meat and fish up to 10 ppm.

When 50 years age, the human body has silver an average content of  9 mg. It is located in the bones, skin, hair and soft tissues. Blood has silver about 3 ppm and soft tissues 10 .. 250 ppm. One commercially sold silver water had 30 ppm per 100 ml.
Also western pioneers knew the effect of silver. On leaving the journey over the prairies, there was a water barrel on the wagons. They dropped a silver dollar to the barrel, which keeped the water longer safe to drink. (872)

## 17.   Body Mass Index BMI

Many things are proportional. Adult is overweight, if the body fat content exceeds a certain proportional threshold, body mass index. Body mass index calculated kg/m2 as weight divided by height squared, in other words the coverage of the length (in physics corresponding to the speed of light c2). It is the pressure or tension, such as for example the energy of the formula E = m c2. Mass m = kg of weight in the index. Normal BMI is between 19 to 25. This text does not explain exceptions to the index calculation.

## Normal weight - Overweight - Obese Class I- Obese Class II

18,5 x 1,25 / 1,03 = 22,45

22,45 x 1,25 /1,03 = 27,2

27,2 x 1,25 /1,03 = 33

33 x 1,25 /1,03 = 40

According to calculation; the speed of light and length form the surface area. In other words a covering to calculate the pressure. Coefficient 1.03 is the everywhere present Universal Friction. (1060)

L = 1,77 m       Kg = 85                =>  85 kg / 1,772 m         = 27,1 kg /m2

## 18.   Natural Walking Speed

All animals have their natural walking speed, human including. One period is a complete back-and-forth swing of the foot (leg). If the length of the foot is 98 cm. What is the elapsed time to pair of steps = S = 2 x 75 cm? The step length of 75 cm has been measured during walking or from the footprints on the ground. In this way the dinosaurs walking speed can be set afterwards. And not only the dinosaurs walking speed. We understand distance and speed joining to the concept of time. Length can be measured with a simple tape measure and distance using some units like mile or kilometer. By calculating the time, we get deeper into the concept, than wathing a clock. Products have the same laws of nature to time than all others have.

Preferred walking speed

## 8.1   Physical Pendulum

T = 2 x Pi  SQRT (2 L / 3 g)

T = 2 x Pi x SQRT (2 x 0,98 / 3 x 9,8)

T = 1,62 sec  The Golden Ratio 1,618

T = Time sec           g = 9,8 m/s2           L = 0,98 m            Pi = 3,14...

## 18.2   Walking Speed

v = S / T

v = 1,50 m / 1,62 sec  = 0,80 m/s  = 3,3 km/h

v = Speed m/sec      S = Length of one period

Many say to walk six kilometers per hour (about four miles). Maybe while a moment, but not a long time. This, because there is a proportionality between the length of the leg and the force of gravity. When did you last walk for example 50 km trip as a natural walking? (863)

## 19.   Energy Cost for Obese

Obesity a research journal; January 2012

Energetic Cost and Preferred Speed of Walking in Obese vs. Normal Weight Women

There was a hypothese; that walking is more expensive for obese women. That for they prefer lower walking speeds that minimize the gross energy cost per distance. Twenty adult women, 10 obese and 10 normal weight.  Subjects walked at six speed 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, 1.5, and 1.75 m/s. Five minutes trials and five minutes rest period between trials. Walking was 11 % more expensive for the obese subjects. the obese subjects walked the same speed than normal subjects walked; 1.40 - 1.47 m/s in other words 5.0 - 5.3 km/h.

1.0 - 1.12 - 1.25 - 1.6

1.11 x 100 % = 111 %

1                             1

1        1                        1.1 x 1 = 1.1

1        2       1                    1.1 x 1.11 = 1.21

1       3         3      1               1.1 x 1.21 = 1.331

The maximum speed was 1.75 m/sec = 6.3 km/hour. Half of the test has been rest time and that for maximum walking speed was 3,15 km/h. This is about the natural walking speed to human, who had 98 cm legs. Of this there is on these pages a calculated example which determined 3,3 km/h.

(749)

## 20.   Bending Generally

Without understanding of physics and physiology, does not understand either the nature of the deflection. This is difficult, because physics does not teach the deflection. Deflection is associated with the strength determination, which belongs to engineering education. Deflection is a theoretical subject and the basic element for the best-known energy formula. Energy equations can also be explained through the sport-related issues. Physiological deflection increases the length of time for performance which may indicate as time dilation.

Basically, deflection causes elongation and shrinkage. The outward manifestation of this is the deformation of the body. In practice saying the object bending. In physics time bends, ie the used time increases as time dilation. (678)

## 31.   Physiological Bending

Deflection ratio of 1:1000 is the baseline of a deflection. Referring to the physiology, deflection  and fatiguing are the same meaningAll you read on my pages are linked to each other, sooner or later1:1000 deflection ratio is the shadow of fatiguing in many meaning. The next table shows the condition describtion from boy to man - being a man - from a man to an older man (not to a senior citizen).

## Age       Very good         Good           Average

1.06              1.1                   1.21

13–14      > 2700 m        2455 m          2231 m

15–16       >2862 m        2602 m          2365 m        Condition improves

17–20       >3034 m        2758 m          2507 m        Best condition

20–29       >2862 m        2602 m          2365 m

30–39       >2700 m        2455 m          2231 m

40–49       >2547 m        2315 m          2105 m         Condition worsens

50-60        >2403 m        2185 m          1985 m

## Ikä  - Age

(13-14)  -  (15 - 16)  -  (17 - 20)  -  (20 - 29)  -  (30 - 39)  -  (40 -49)  -  (50 +)

12.5      -      16      -       20      -      25      -       32      -      40     -     50

13 x 1.25 = 16

16 x 1.25 = 20

20 x 1.25 = 25

25 x 1.25 = 32
32 x 1.25 = 40
40 x 1.25 = 50

The before is an example of tabled data of living matter. This is so called exact knowledge. A human person is included in to this information.

The following is an example of dead matter as HEB I-profiles. This is also the exact data of profiles. All profiles have when loaded the deflection ratio of 1:1000.

Nimike        cm      kN/cm2     cm4         cm3           cm4       cm3       kg/m     A cm2

HEB100      518         2.2         450         90         167       33.5      20.4      26

HEB120      644         2.1         864       144         318       52.9      26.7      34

HEB160      868         2          2490       311         889       111        42.6      54.3

HEB200     1062        2          5700       570       2000       200        61.3     78.1

HEB240     1235        2         11260       938       3920       327        83.2    106

HEB320     1534       2.1       30820     1930       9240       616        127      161

518 x  1.25 =  647

647 x 1.25  =  808

808 x 1.25 = 1010

1010 x 1.25 = 1262

1262 x 1.25 = 1577

## Conclusion

Living materia gives out  all energy when moving and time is equivalent to time. The longer the performance takes time, the greater deflection. When a loaded (dead) steel material has the deflection ratio of 1:1000, the final tension level is the same. The factor 1,25 includes to both and this why the name called EP-calculation. The living human and a dead bridge are both products. They have the same base on condition and ability to carry load. The measurable span length and human age are same meaning, when they are related to each other. (1044)

## 32.   Missing Moment of the Wire

The thin wire is placed between two points, which represent the points A and B. The wire can be expected to be light, wherein the supporting forces A and B are low.

A = B = G / 2

So that the light wire does not have any sag on the wire. There is need to have an infinitely great force, relative to size of the wire. The strength of the wire will, therefore, be extremely large in order to take against the pulling force. This situation does not arise in real life. Yet, a similar kind of situation still generated by electrical power lines with wires sagging. The thin wires (ropes) are under tensile stress, but having no bending moment. Wire as a result of lack of rigidity, the wire dimensioning is based on the cross-sectional surface area.

In cross-section with a small section modulus, tensile stress arises in practice. Wire and electric wire rope, have a poor load bearing capacity, not to mention of the pushing, but a large pulling capacity. Pulling forms a tensile stress, whereby the wire dimensioning is a quite simple task. Pieces having a stiffness => generate a tensile and compressive stress which have opposite signs on opposite sides of the cross-section. In the center is the neutral axis, where the stress is zero.

When suspending the roadway lighting eccentrically it generates the above loading case. Designer's design program makes the determination of forces in the wires to be simple. After this is determined an appropriate safety factor for cable pulsating loads. Outdoor lighting collects snow and wind waves the whole etc. This is taken into account, in particular at the ends of the wires in the fastenings of the structures. Furthermore, taking into account the wire shackles number of connection points. At least two wire shackles, and taking account the effect of the corrosion to wire. A simple design includes a number of things to consider, so that the designer can sleep with peace of mind the night.

The calculation of human fatigue, the steel girder bending and many things are synonymous. If the girder is placed on top of a larger load => increases the deflection of the girderIf a man is set to bear a greater burden => increases the spent performance time. The used time has the same meaning in terms of fatigue, because fatigue increases time. The athlete's fatigue level may partially determine by the basis of the timeOn the other hand, if the girder length is increased while maintaining the same load => growing even in this case the deflection of the girder. In human cases the increasing distance => increases execution time (used time). These things are clear concepts, without counting the associated same meanings.

Time comparisons, it is often a one-dimensionality. Interestingly, the road running time consists of the time arised through all dimensionalities (up and down - left and right - time (dilation). The wire movement is forward and back, the pulleys conveying the movement through the dimensionalities. Rigid steel bar in place of the service; does not own the thread-like property of matter. Thread (wire) and its design is not essential, but the lack of reference to the thread moment (torque). The matching situation arises in connection with running, where the missing moment does not preclude different dimensionalities. This is calculated, the physics and physiology having the same notes. This will be discussed soon in the form of calculation. (306)

## 33.   Human Age Performance

We study the condition of people in different ages, and we see this character computationally determined. Calculation result is confirmed in hundreds of millions of performance occasions. This ensures a reliable basis for comparison, a table indicating the statistical data.

We think of ourselves as individualsof which there is no possibility of comparison. The performance of the person by running is one-dimensional progression. The comparison is possible through tables, and itself can do testing to determine the condition.

The Homo Sapiens information can be found on the InternetAs the study should always be doneneed to understand certain thingsso that the research would be possibleKeywordHomo Sapiens throughputdoes not give an answerasking the same by word Cooper test, the case is converted to another.

Is that enough a hundred million or a billion running performanceIn 1968, Kenneth H. Cooper developed to the U.S. Army 12-minute Cooper testThe test gives a rough estimate of the condition of the runnerThe end result, of course, needs the runner's motivation during the performance and requires practiceWithout practice, a 12-minute time is difficult and can easily lead to a fast speed, which backfires.

First we print Cooper test resultsIt is found the results to be split into age groups and four condition classesTesting of 13-years of age have the lowest age, which is available on a reliable test resultThe army does not benefit from the results below that age, so the material younger age groups have sports clubsIn the past, almost all were able to test running, but today not all are able to participate in a variety of reasonsThe test in this sense shows the result of those who are able to run. About all humanthe data does not tell allonly the data of the participants.

## 34.   Cooper Test Table Men

The test was designed by Kenneth H. Cooper for US military use in 1968. It is well suited for the large masses of the performance review.

the test is to run as far as possible within 12 minutes.

As a standard test this test should to be performed only under standard conditions:

• Between 10 to 25°C with 75% maximum humidity.
• On a standard 400 m tartan track or similar.
• The candidate should not suffer from respiratory problems

13–14      2700+      2400 – 2700      2200 – 2399      2100 – 2199 m      2100-

15–16      2800+      2500 – 2800      2300 – 2499      2200 – 2299 m      2200-

17–20      3000+      2700 – 3000      2500 – 2699      2300 – 2499 m      2300-

20–29      2800+      2400 – 2800      2200 – 2399      1600 – 2199 m      1600-

30–39      2700+      2300 – 2700      1900 – 2299      1500 – 1899 m      1500-

40–49      2500+      2100 – 2500      1700 – 2099      1400 – 1699 m      1400-

50+          2400+      2000 – 2400      1600 – 1999      1300 – 1599 m      1300-

The table shows the 20-year-old man has the best condition. The forty years old man has about the same condition as the fourteen years old boy etc. Later we calculate the table, which is based on factors 1.06 - 1.25 and 1.25.  (1010)

## 35.   Running a Race

Running a race has been common through the ages. From ancient time the winner's relative position at the finish has defined the position. Before being wins the behind coming. Comparable time taking there has been only few tens of year. Before the Proportional Equivalent Calculation there is no determination by calculating the time.

Sitting in the stadium grandstand finds the running lanes.

100 and 200 m running races occur in a straight lane portion, but 400 m run takes place on the oval-shaped track. You think this is natural, because you would not see the 400 meters running, if it would run on a straight track. You have a lot of understanding of the formation of natural phenomena. At first the phenomena calculation seem to proceed in a straight line, such as running lanes in the photo, but will get the shape of the curve, such as running tracks. Running event as a calculation may be connected with the other phenomena. Fibonacci sequence of numbers tells the short sprints, first by reading the shortest distance of 100 m to one unit of length.

1  -  1  -  2  -
100 m  +  100 m  +  200 m

## 36.   Commercialized Competitive Sports

Competitive sport is commercialized and practical calculation does not differ from the other products. EP-calculation takes into account energy use during the performance, as well as the energy production of the person in relation to the size and weight. Further, we calculate the energy use in accordance with the condition of the human age groups, wherein the human size does not matter. Cooper test is not asking weight or length, just age. The calculation produces a surprise for the human in terms of size and muscle power returns among athletes. The golden ratio 1.618 is with in this. We calculate the energy in the run, get the answer to age group, travel length and condition group. Calculation does not include any hocus-pocus. The calculator in hand determines the sport mode. When one of the previous relation is known, the rest is known.Condition is energy production, in practice oxygen uptake. For example, we calculate the running position impact on the performance. This is compared to the main girder of the bridge crane. How much energy is bound to deflection, because the question is of a poor running position which consumes energy.

When hoisting something, the main girder of the bridge crane is not bending of the load power. It can say for example the hydroelectric power potential energy converted into electricity, lifts the the load. In the hoisting machine, placed on the main girder. It is the potential energy, which is transferred to the elastic energy of the main girder. We are talking about compression and tensile stress, as a visible deflection. We have not calculated what the energy is, how much and why. Wire bending in the hands we know, without calculating the amount of the wire produced energy. In the strength calculation much time is used to stresses analyses in the construction, still the shape stransformation is often the most important.

Finally, let us consider the metal punching machine, which bends the piece. One stroke takes a fraction of a second and the bend required energy has mostly transferred to the piece. After punching there remains a physical form of the piece which after cooling has the same energy amount as before the punching. Runner also eventually produces only heat. Things can be viewed simply by taking the case at a time. Worldrecord statistic is a good tustustua in advance, when the resulting flow records cover the consciousness. The calculation is often of the best results, so it is good to be familiar with the World Records.  (909)

World Records

## 37.   Running by Examining

For example, the Olympics short run races are 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1500 m runs. The first four trips adding up is 1500 m. The British Commonwealth has the running lengths 1609 m, including the value of the golden ratio (1.618). Adding together the 1,500 m + 800 m + 400 m + 200 m + 100 m = 3000 m and by summing the lengths 1609 and 1500 m is 3109 m, which corresponds to the value of Pi (3.14).3000 m length to run, it is a mathematical construction block joining, for example to steel sections HEB 100, HEB 160, HEB 200 and HEB 300, which belongs for the strength calculation. On the level of thougt, the height of the steel cross-section and the length of the run distances have the same basis.

100 m                                    200 m

400 m         800 m

1500 / 1609 m

- The short running distances => are the mathematically-set performance.
- The total length is the value of Pi (3.14).

- By seeing the things, the building blocks are relative to each other and calculated.

- In the end, the steel girder deflection and the running performance can cross-calculate. The 800 m World Record time is something and the steel girder is bent as well.
Also, the marathon running time is determined by calculation. The visual geometry present these curves, which detects the curves converge. (10)

## 38.   Time Comparison in Sport

London's Olympic Games were when writing this 2012. It is said that Pascal's triangle has nothing interesting, and there is no reason waste time. Do we believe that? Thoudands years ago, the Chinese were familiar with Pascal's triangle pattern. Today we find the pattern corresponding to run event lengths. The Chinese did not have time instrument, but we are sure they did compete at least with animals. Today we are competing in many ways and we can compare the performance to another, when a similar event. In London broke the old 800 meters World Record. People write of this, because the time is best the ever achieved. What is not sure, whether the new World Record is superior or not. This can verify through Pascal's triangle.

The difference between the Proportional Equivalent Calculation and science is; The science describes the phenomena through formulas, but EPC calculation shapes the phenomena through different kind of patterns. In this the formula does not often lead to another event or phenomena. Science can describe such as tracks directly on the photo. EPC calculation takes the tracks to the left. The calculation leads to the orbit of phenomena. (793)

## 38.1   Short Run Events

Pascal's triangle as visual geometry

Pascal's triangle                                Run Events                         Distances

1                                                 100                                  100 m

1      1                                       100       100                            200 m

1      2       1                           100       200       100                      400 m

1      3       3      1                  100       300      300      100                  800 m

1       4      6       4      1        100     400       600       400     100           1600 m

Cheops pyramid

You think the pyramid has not to do with running, and at that time egyptian did not run a race. There is no need at all, because the phenomena included in the pyramid pattern. Science for some reason does not want to understand this. I guess you can see the pyramid similarity between Pascal's triangle and the fact this context, derived from the short run events. It is quite sufficient to begin with this observation.

1600 m run event prefer today to be 1500 m. The British Commonwealth of Nations has called the length of 1609 m as a mile. Today to be run for a shorter 1500 meter, runners are still referred to Mailer. The distance is said to be killing, which can be demonstrated by calculating the time period. After this, Pascal's pattern will continue with other issues and values.

Maximum run length - minimum run length =>   1600 m - 100 m = 1500 m

Pascal's Triangle determines the first five run events, having the relative position in phenomenon space. Pascal's Triangle is two-dimensional figure or pyramid as three-dimensional object. (972)

## 39.   The Shadow of Run Event

Math is like building a house of bricks. The construction is completed laying bricks one at a time and is the same thing in the context of the physiology. You know how to build a house, you know the construction of the physical performance. Shortest run distance as hundred meters is a brick for the construction. Simple as hay-making, as is sometimes puts it. In order to create something new, has to think about a new simple way, such as E = m c c, which includes all. All right, I built a pyramid which, after all, contains a lot more than we dare to think.

100                                        100 m

100       100                                 200 m

100       200       100                           400 m

100       300      300      100                      800 m

100     400       600       400     100              1600 m

1600 m run distance (mile 1609 m) prefer today to be 1500 m

Maximum run distance - shortest run distance

1600 m - 100 m = 1500 m

Pascal's Triangle determines the first five run events, having the relative position in phenomenon space. Pascal's Triangle is two-dimensional figure and pyramid as three-dimensional object.  (848)

## 40.   Fibonacci Numbers, 200 m WR

Fibonacci Numbers start 1 - 1 - 2 ...    Pascal's Triangle having the same form.

100 m - 100 m - 200 m

Pascal's Triangle

Athletic Event 100 m Race

100 m                                         9.58 sec

100 m   +   100 m                    9.58 sec    +    9.58 sec

The World Record of 100 m is 9.58 sec. As known value.

## 200 m WR

2 x  9,58 sec = 19,16 sec (World Record 19,19 sec)

Accuracy of the calculation is 0,156 % to time 19,19 sec. Later we calculate small and large things having the average accuracy of 2 %. Yet we do not generally know the formation of the products and physical behaviour in matters. These come closer day after day. The calculation method was first for products and of these to physics and physiology. (302)

## Dimensionalities

One-dimensionality                   progressive movement, such as running forward

Two-dimensionality                    through the concept of area, force and strength

Three-dimensionality                 volume

Four-dimensionality                   time, such as Hermann Minkowski understood it

Hermann Minkowski

Albert Einstein study in Switzerland progressed reasonably well. Hermann Minkowski's mathematics lectures Einstein skipped, believing that he had no use for a higher level mathematics. This he afterwards regretted.

When Albert Einstein algebraically presented the special theory of relativity in 1905, Hermann Minkowski showed to his former student that it could also be understood geometrically as a theory of four-dimensional space-time. Later Albert Einstein realized that a geometrical view of space-time would be necessary in order to complete his own later work in general relativity (1915).

The proportionality is significant in terms of Albert Einstein presented the same algebraically by the Hermann Minkowski was able to provide geometrically.

Calculating has the idea as in the above text. The phenomena can be examined by measuring, calculate and display geometrically. How does we calculate the two-hundred-meter world record? This physics does not calculate?

An Example of One-Dimensionality

## Short Run Events

The figure shows the lengths of the events to follow Pascal's triangle.

1                                      1                             1 x 100 m = 100 m

2                                 1        1                        2 x 100 m = 200 m

4                             1       2       1                    4 x 100 m = 400 m

8                         1       3       3      1                8 x 100 m = 800 m

16                    1      4       6      4     1           16 x 100 m = 1600 m (mile)

This is visual geometry to see short run events.

Fibonacci numbers

1  -  1  -  2  -  3  -  5  - 8  -  13  - 21  - 34  - 55  - ....

Fibonacci Numbers start 1 - 1 - 2 ... Pascal's Triangle has the same form.

100 m + 100 m =  200 m

Athletic Event 100 m Race

The World Record of 100 m is 9.58 sec.

## 200 m ME  -  200 m WR

2 x  9.58 sec = 19.16 sec (World Record 19.19 sec)

100 m + 100 m =  200 m

1  -  1  -  2

While running the first 100 meters, takes place on the way to fatigue. I hope you know that the runners in the world are not capable of fully running a hundred meters. Without fatigue time would presumably be in accordance with the following calculation.

9.58 s / 1.0328 = 9.276 s.

200 metrin matkalla, kun väsyminen huomioidaan

When 200 meters run, taking fatigue into accoun

2 x 9.276 x 1.0328 = 19.16 s

## WR Wind Conditions

100 m:            Tuuli / Wind + 0.9 m/s               200 m:            Tuuli / Wind - 0.3 m/s

For example wind makes the difference 19.16 s = 19.19 s. Of course you understand that this only a way to calculate this kind of phenomena like run events. Through time dilation the calcalation is a part of physics. Both WR times belong to Usain Bolt and this makes times comparable. (412)

## 51.   Shot Put

.

Randy Barnes  23,12 m 20.05 1990   Westwood, CA

Natalja Lisovskaja 22,63 m 7.6 1987 Moskova

Shot put is to push the heavy steel ball as far as possible. The key tool for sports does not play a large part. By look at the world records, we get a picture of how human physiology is evolving and how fast. Sometimes the impression is that, in today's training results are them, which at best was achieved decades ago.
At the moment, the current world record is from the year 1990. Now the men record is 24 and women 27 years old.

## What about the records in Finland?

Reijo Ståhlberg 21,69 5.5 1979

Finland men's record has worn for 35 years. Mika Halvari pushed to 22.09 m in 2000, which was due to the indoor hall was not accepted. In conclusion, shot put record does not break easily. Men's shot put level in Finland in 2014, is the WR level in the 60's. We come to the same meaning, and the results are comparable with each other for decades. (644)

## 52.   Long Jump Records

The human physiology-defined records have maintained long, the statistical data prove the results. We start with the long jump. We know that athletes' strength and speed have increased dramatically in the 90's compared to the 60's results. Is this the case, the statistic show below.

Long jump

8,95 m    Mike Powell Tokio              30.08 1991       Tokyo

8,90 m    Bob Beamon Meksiko        18.10 1968       Mexico

8,31 m    Greg Rutherford Lontoo     04.08 2012      London

Bob Beamon jumped 8.90 m, Mexico in 1968. It took 23 years and the record improved by 5 cm. At the present time 21 years has gone since the previous record. Rutherford's winning result 831 cents is the lowest performance at the Olympic Games since 1972.

8,22 m     Tommi Evilä   Göteborg       26.06 2008        Sweden

8,16 m     Rainer Stenius  Los Angeles  06.05 1966     USA

The Finnish record has improved 6 cm after 42 years. Have we reached the world record, or are we Finnish lagging behind? Jesse Owens jumped 8.13 m 25.05 1935 and Ralph Boston 8.22 m 27.05 1961. The above means that Finns are currently behind by 50 year, considering the current record 8.22 m. What kind of understanding do we have of the human physiology evolution? The Equivalent Proportional Calculation brings people to think about the development in many ways. (643)

## Data

a) The competitor can initiate the jump from any point behind the foul line; however, the distance measured will always be perpendicular to the foul line to the nearest break in the sand caused by any part of the body or uniform.

b) Bob Beamon jumped the result 8.90 m. "He worked on his speed and perfecting a technique in which the jumper does not so much jump as walk in the air". the best jumpers have been sprinters. His running approach which took six seconds and jump legth resulted from an initial velocity of 9.5 m/s.

c) Thin air of Mexico City influenced by the length of the jump, 2250 metres above sea level.

D) The wind conditions were perfect for Beamon's record jump +2 meters per second. The maximum accepted wind assistance is two metres per second (m/s).

e) Gravity Mexico City 9.766 m/s2

f) Height 1.91 m. Weight 70 kg

## Trajectory of the Jump

Suppose the jumper to be a living gun shot. The maximum range of the gun is achieved by directing the barrel angle of 45 degrees from the ground. The weapon is stationary on its place when shooting, but the jumper is in a horizontal motion. Elite jumpers usually leave the ground at an angle of twenty degrees or less; therefore, it is more beneficial for a jumper to focus on the speed component of the jump. It is contrary to the laws of physics say jump on the board facing about 20-degree angle, so it is assumed to be 45 degrees. Jumping in the air is very well directed twenty degrees, which has the component of the kinetic energy to horizontal direction.

The jumper not so much jumps on the board, but levers itself to 45 degrees forward angle, which shows in the air as about twenty degrees angle.

## First way to determine the length of the jump

On the board the horizontal travelling speed was 9,5 m/s / SQRT (2) = 6,718 m/s

Vertical and horizontal component both 6,718 m/s.

Pascal's triangle according to visual geometry

1 dim                   1                 m
2 dim               1      1             m2
3 dim           1      2     1          m3

4 dim      1       3      3     1      s

6.718 m/s x 1.331 s = 8.94 m    (WR 8.90 m)

## Second way to determine the length of the jump

Bob Beamon jump Mexico City 1968

Time dilation table

9.5 m/s / 1,03282 = 8,90 m

Pascalin kolmio näkemisen geometrian mukaan

1 dim                   1                 m           1,0328

2 dim               1      1            m2          1,03282

3 dim           1      2      1         m3           1,03283
4 dim      1       3      3     1      s

Jump has the horizontal and vertical component, so it is area

## Third way to determine the length of the jump

Jump has two the same rate of speed component. Horizontal 6.72 m/s and a 45-degree angle velocity component. The resultant of these components is half of 45 degrees and is 22.5 degrees. This is the angle at which the jumper appears to be flying in the air.

The number five is an important to EPC calculation. The claim is, the height of the jump is the fifth of the length+ the universal friction 1.03. (8.90 m / 5) x 1.03 = 1.83 m. By knowing the length of the jump 8.90 meters, can be calculated the nominal height of the jump.

h = 4.45 m x tan 22,5o                4,45 m = 8,90 m /2                   h = height
h = 1.84 m

Of this can determine the time in seconds for the jump.

The free fall of a body

t =
SQRT (h / g x 0.5)

t = SQRT (1.84 m / 0.5 x 9.766 m / s)

t = 0.614 s

Total time for the jump;     2 x 0.614 = 1.228 seconds

## Fourth way to determine the length of the jump

My opinion is the physics of ball trajectories is not the correct way calculate the jump. I'll tell you a few reasons why I feel this way

a) The formula given for a trajectory is for a stand alone situation, like a gun. What about when the gun is placed on an airplane and the speed is two Machs? Jumpers horizontal travelling speed is the same as the horizontal.

b) Small-scale laboratory tests gives the wanted results according to formulas.

- The test ball diameter and weight is greatly oversized in relation to range

- The power for the test ball is not really able to determine of some spring system.

- The shape of the ball is exact. Compare this to the jumper in the air.

- Turn the bullet 90o and shoot the side first. Now formulas stopped.

c) The test ball leaves at an angle 40o to 45o, but the jumper is never in the air (ab. 20o

d) In the absence of air-resistance the formulas work, but not in real world.

e) Some of the laudable statements related to the flight path, give the flight time for the jump. On that basis Bob Beamon in practice also made a new high jump WR. This taking into account, the bord was 4.45 m from the jumping point.

f) Long jumpers know the speed as the most important factor in performance. For this reason, it is proposed 100 and 200 m WR owning Usain Bolt to break the current record 8.95 m. Race Runner reaches the maximum speed from 50 to 70 meters in track length. The length of the jump running track is 40 meters and Is Usain Bolt for this reason too large to 40 m long track?  (900)

## 54.   Probability of the Same Date of Birth

Physiology has become the sports section, which is calculated physical performance. The following example will place in this context, which is familiar to many. The money has lost in gaming and gambling. This, as a human being does not separate the likelihood of relativity.

Two football teams are placed opposite to each other. Each team has 11 players, together this is 22 players. What is the probability that there are on the field two on the same day of the year born players? I suggest betting on a promise of profit ratio of 2:1 on the ground and I say to have two players born on the same day. As the year has 365 days, has the opposing side a small chance to lose the bet?

The fact of the birth of two days to hit the same day is 50.7%. This is because the calculation of the probability seeks human pairs, resulting in this case 253 different pairs. The first player can connect to anyone 22 players and the next player to the remaining 21 players, etc. The payoff is modest, but the chance of winning better than the opposite side has.

The ratio of a 253 pair and 365 days gives an indication of the likelihood. When giving the impression to influence the decision, the result is false. In a real situation, many are likely to accept the bet. This illustrates the difficulty to distinguish between reality and perception.

## 54.1   Calculation

There are 11 players on each team. By default, the example has one substitute for the team, which in practice is three players. Total players are thus defining 24 and the probability that two people share a birthday at the same day;

## 342/365 = 0,937

By calculating the common fraction 24 times and multiplying by calculating the input, we get the probability of 27/50. The probability of winning the bet is then 54%. If you meet on the field 60 players at the prize-giving ceremony, it would be in practice, the probability of 1 that there are two players born on the same day. (121)

## 55.   Pyramid Training

The idea of pyramids are used for strong human body training. Pyramid training starts using a light weight and doing many repetitions. The weight increases with each set and the number of repetitions decreases correspondingly.

Repetions         Strengths

10                        70 %                                     1111111111

6                         85 %                                         111111

2                         95 %                                            11

1                       100 %                                             1

There is a high risk of injury when doing the repetition with maximal strength; it is actually used to increase strength rather than to increase muscle mass.

## Truncated Pyramid

Repetions         Strengths

12                        60 %                                 111111111111

10                        70 %                                   1111111111

8                         80 %                                     11111111

6                         85 %                                       111111

The truncated pyramid stimulates the muscle fibres to swell more effectively than the normal pyramids.

## Reversed Truncated Pyramid

Repetions         Strengths

6                         85 %                                     111111

8                         80 %                                   11111111

10                        70 %                                 1111111111

12                        60 %                               111111111111

The training intensity is considerably higher in comparison to the “truncated” pyramid. This is suitable for advanced athletes who have good training techniques.

## Double Pyramid

Repetions         Strengths

12                         60 %                               111111111111

10                         70 %                                1111111111

8                          80 %                                  111111111

6                          85 %                                     111111

6                          85 %                                     111111

8                          80 %                                   11111111

10                         70 %                                 1111111111

12                         60 %                               111111111111