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Strength of Materials
Studying products
Visual Geometry

Nämä sivut ovat:

Näkemisen geometriaa
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Visitors - Kävijät

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EP-Calculation Basicsfinnish_translation.jpg

Suhdelaskennan perusteet

  1.       Plato's Cave Metaphor Today.

  2.       Start of the EPC Calculation

  3.       EPC Method

  4.       Proportionality Generally.

  5.       EP-Calculation Benefits

  6.       Quantities in the EP-Calculation

  7.       Newtons' Experimental Philosophy

  8.       Diophantus Epitaph

  9.       The Formation of Values

10.       Golden Ratio 1.618 Calculation

11.       Numbers Versus EP-Calculation


21.       First Five Factors

22.       Fibonacci Numbers

23.       Pascal's Triangle

23.1     Pascal's Triangle, the Lowest Row

23.2     Number Combinations

23.       Zero History

24.1     Maya Indian Calendar

24.2     Fibonacci Number 0

25.       Number Five to EP-Calculation

25.1     Area of ​​the Circle

26.       Five Basic Calculation Methods

27.       Five Way to Handle the Change

27.1     Functions and numbers

28.       Equivalent Proportional Calculation (EPC)

29.       EPC and Visual Geometry

30.       The Emergence of the Proportionality


41.       Mendeleev's Predicted Elements

42.       Everything has a locations

43.        Proportion Numbers

44.        Ratios Adding and Multiplying.

45.        Various Measure Units

46.        Description of the Patterns Through the Proportionality

47.        Mathematical Creature

48.        Domino Effect

49.        Pascal's triangle factor 11

50.        Exponential Value Curve


61.        Golden Ratio.

62.        Golden Ratio Today

63.        Golden Ratio in the Literature.

64.        Paper Folding Five Times

65.        Ratio Between Kilometer and Mile

66.        Different units of Measurement

67.        Living and Non-living Matter Ratios

68.        Observations

68.1      Observation I

68.2      Observation II

68.3      Observation III

68.4      Observation IV

68.5      Observation V

68.6      Observation VI

69.        Measures - Ratio 1.618

2.   Plato's Cave Metaphor Today

The reality of the shadows is associated  to Visual Geometry. The light joins to shadows which form the dark area onto the illuminated materia. All shadows are not this, for example, deflection and fatigue are shadows of the events, and calcutable. This means the calculation determining the cases through the shadows. This is simple, requiring only the ability to receive data from another point of view. In the end, the EP-calculation leads to the same, or it is not known to end up in some other way. In some cases, the minutes calculation on the paper has required years experience of the calculated things. Some of the things you will not ever be able to calculate the other way.

shadow_1.jpgAccording to Plato's example we are prisoners linked to the formula chains and the science in the name of the world explains the formulas. In this faith, we ask the equation to calculate. Our heads are tied to formula chains, which also are shadows of the events. The accuracy of the formula is like a campfire light of the Plato's cave example. Without a clear light of the fire, there is not exact image of the shadow, the description of the phenomenon. What about when there is no formula?

The EP-calculation has no formula chained prisoners. We'll look at the light and shade, choosing the best way to calculate with or without the formula. The formulas are good, but based on them can not only stay. In order to be able to calculate the engineering and physics- related tasks, must be aware of the gravity field acceleration, but gravity is less well known.

Gravitation the Shadow Generator

The value of acceleration of gravity, does not give the knowledge of the subject. We use, for example, a coefficient of 9,81 m/s2, without knowing why. I guess that 99.99 % of people are unable to determine the gravitational constant, Y = 6,67 x 10-11 Newton meter2/kilogram2 formation. Thus, the calculation is not based on personal reasons for knowing way. We calculate the gravity in many ways to a known. Without gravity, there is no need for calculation. There is nothing to bend, stop motion or hold together. This finding out, gravity holds it all together, stops the movement, bends and tires, but can be calculated.

EP-calculatin may calculate known even earlier amazing things to calculate. The concept of the shadows brings out things which in the bright light have been covered invisible.  A similar event has the black and white photograph, when the dark section has no details. Photo developing, it is possible to shed light on dark spots more and thus get the details out. To dark underexposed negatives, this is possible. Overexposed negative for almost white, so it is like looking at things through the bread bag. I know this because I had equipment for black-and-white photos manufacturing. The idea of ​​formulas as the only way to understand nature, is the dead idea and has lead to narrow view taken.

Other calculating procedures are not consistent description. Because of this, the visit can start from chosen point, this without messing up the whole picture. The building construction is one of the calculation themes. When you open the pages, they are changed. Thus,  they are more accurate, but never finished. Shadows will open up a new world. (981)

2.   Start of the EPC Calculation

In 1983 I visited to West Germany and I bought my first computer. It was like a calculator having small printer and cassette tape drive. To this computer I designed product series. This was possible with the help of the small programs.


At the same time I identified weights of products on a big accuracy. A Production Engineer of one company interested in of my weights definition. Later he told me checked some big components of products. My accuracy had been 100 gram in those parts. The written based on information what he told me. Calculations did not look impressive, but I guarantee their to made me an effect thirty years ago. At the same time I became interested in knowing in advance the values of the strength calculation, these based on the prior knowledge of the existing. At that time, I was unable to find the answer. It went for 12 years, when I placed the program idea to to a contest. Of this we are coming to calculation.  (884)

3.   EPC Method

EPC = Equivalent Proportional Calculation, shortened EP-calculation

EP-calculation is dealing with proportionality and has contact to set theoryMany are not familiar with the set theory, still everything on mathematics is said to be based on itThe set theory is the mathematical basis of the inverted information. Due to the lack of information, the data is sought with the help of the other given information. Many can the mathematical procedure, in which the inversed knowledge gives the picture of the obtainable, but not any exact value. An example of this is the library information retrieval procedure.


                                 Calculations are mathematical bricks to construction

The calculation is still not established to inversed knowledge and of that led knowledge. EP-calculation is based on equal knowledge, definning the value of the target. The mathematics is sometimes not included to the natural science, because it sometimes even does not try adapt the picture of the world. This kind of description has given the Nobel Prize-winning physicist and mathematician, Richard FeynmanHe has done ​​the most accurate description of the nature, but it has to remember that Richard Feynman has the twinkle in the corner of the eye.

It can certainly say that there is a procedure to find the information based on inverted information, the set theoryOn the other hand such a procedure is for the conceptual and touchable things and this is EP-calculation. The previous process gives the picture of the problem, the later gives often the exact calculation resultProducts pages are a witness of the calculation and the reason for the calculation. It is easier believe to the calculationwhich has the tabled data, models of the world and a uniform description between thingsThe calculation is formed of the stories, history and creativity. As a result of a different method the calculation gives something that we should not otherwiseWe do not forwardtowards the well-known, such as teaching in the school does. We will proceed calculation through the known into the unknown. (885)

4.   Proportionality Generally


In proportionality pieces look the same, if the relationship is not knownLifting lugs in the image, are an example of the relativity.

The smallest and largest lifting lug from the further away, look the same and are incomparable between the lugs. This can be seen in the image on the right. Of the image can not judge their size and lifting capacity.

Lifting lugs size depends on how far away they are reviewed and is it known within the review. Lifting lugs are on a given distance from observer, but also the size of a relation to each other and to values ​inside the product.

These lugs are for lifting capacity from 500 to 40 000 kg, and their strength is rated at the same tension level. (1093)

5.   EP-Calculation Benefits

EP-calculation has a lot to a tasks that cannot otherwise get out. Naturally the calculation result must not deviate of the otherwise specified. The approach to values happens only from the other direction, as usual. The calculation provides an insight to physics, physiology and matter through the same meaning in the issues and values.
  • the calculation result has the relative transfering possibility
  • engineering design weight effectiveness comparison
  • products comparison possibility
  • materials and products standardizationlaskin.jpg
  • the continuity to products and ideas
  • unknown value measurement
  • calculator verified calculation
  • continuous natural process
  • known scientific values
  • the cocepts of strength and service life
  • consistent calculation method
  • science linking procedure
  • coherence of the world
  • yksinkertainen laskenta
  • to speed up calculation
  • comprehensibility

EP-calculation is a parallel way of looking at things and phenomena, covering everything. Without EP-calculation, remains undetected the proportionality between phenimena. This  is acceptable, because everyone does not need understand the formation of phenomena. Stll the calculation is not difficult, although demanding the depth of thinking. Eventually, the calculation results are the checked surrounding reality. (1013)

6.   Quantities in the EP-Calculation

opettaja.jpgIn physicsstrength calculations and between different things the units should be common. This means the SI -system for determining the calculation tasksThe system consists of seven basic unitsLength, mass, electric currenttime, temperatureamount of substance, and luminous intensity.

The calculation can not be performed if the calculation is not realized in the form of unitsTherefore, it is to think about which units are used in the calculationAfter this, the calculation has the mathematical harmony, this because the events are of the Big Bang and processed through the energy expressions.


Many of the tabulated quantities are related to energy.

Mass                                                     m                     kg                 kilogram

Time                                                       t                       s                  second

Electric current                                       I                       A                  ampere

Thermodynamic temperature                T                       K                  Kelvin

Amount of substance                             n                     mol                 mole

Luminous intensity                                 I                       cd                  candela

CGPM The General of Weights and Measures Conference

All others except the kilogram are defined based on natural phenomena. A kilogram (kg) is based in France, to late 1700's specified prototype piece. EP-calculation expandthe concept of the above quantitiesWhen calculating the value of kg is converted by the coefficient of 9.82 kg to the value N (Newton = 0.102 kg). The value of 1 kN means in practice 100 kg mass.

If necessary, the units are related to the calculation in a suitable formby the model of physics. By using the tables, it is possible calculate tasks without converting unitsFor example, 1 mile (1.609 km) has the golden section ratio (1.618) compared to kilometer (error 0.0055%).

Inch 2.54 cm is 1.6182 = 2.618        (error 0.03%).

2.618 / 1.03 = 2.54


In some cases, it may determine the percent error of 0.03 as the universal friction 1.03. This is time dilation value when the speed is 0.25 x c and which belongs almost to all phenomena calculation. By controlling the proportional equivalent calculation, measure conversion is not required in different units of the calculationThis requires awareness of the values ​​formation. (1055)


7.   Newton's Experimental Philosophy


Only those reasons are acceptable, which are necessary to explain the phenomena.

Similar phenomena should always be explained, to the extent possible, the same reason

Such properties of objects that can not increase or decrease and belonging to all objects, that can do some tests, must be regarded as belonging to all objects in general.

In the experimental philosophy deducted laws of phenomena, the status is kept despite at an opposing hypotheses, exactly or approximately the right until they confirm the other phenomena appear in whole or in that they are inclined exceptions. The hypothesis can not weaken the conclusion drawn by experience.

These apply to today and the future.


8.   Diophantus Epitaph

An epitaph is a short text honoring a deceased person. The Greek father of algebra, Diophantus of Alexandria born sometime between AD 200 - 214, and died aged 84 sometime between AD 285 - 299. The puzzle implies that Diophantus lived to be 84 years old. However, the accuracy of the information cannot be independently confirmed. One of the problems (sometimes called his epitaph) states: By the same way, as the headstone says Diophantus age, nature says things through the data. We determine first Diophantus age.

   'Here lies Diophantus,' the wonder behold.
    Through art algebraic, the stone tells how old:
    'God gave him his boyhood one-sixth of his life,
    One twelfth more as youth while whiskers grew rife;
    And then yet one-seventh ere marriage begun;
    In five years there came a bouncing new son.
    Alas, the dear child of master and sage
    After attaining half the measure of his father's life chill fate took him. After consoling his fate by the science of numbers for four years, he ended his life.'

L/6 of his time life he spent as the boy

L/12 he lived to youth

L/7 he lived before getting married

5 years later born his boy

L/2 was the age of the boy

4 years went before he himself died

L = L/6 + L/12 + L/7 + 5 + L/2 + 4

L = 14L/84 + 7L/84 + 12L/84 + 5 + 42L/84 + 4


L = 75L/84 + 9

3/28 L = 9 => L = 28/3 x 9 = 84 years

His boy was 42 year old when died and Diofantos 84 years. The example shows the way to determine the relative lengths of life and how such a task can be solved. Little is known about the life of Diofantos, but the age is known carved into the stone.  (920)

9.   The Formation of Values

9.1   Concrete Values

The Feature for the hand-touchable comes from their including values. The value can be called the shadow, as it also consists of the concrete. It is possible throw some items by a stone or cone of a tree. Cone lightness and softness make it more likely choice, if desired, beeing not hurting or breaking. Calculation allows the conceptual or not by hand-touching values viewing. Computer generates a three-dimensional model, which is to watch, but not to touch. From the model therefore does not know, how does it feel. Values are one-dimensional, the value of the information obtained from such as height, weight, hardness, heat, bending etc. Below is the pentagon image, the physical values form the lower three edges.


                                             1.   Suhteellisuus -  Proportionality
    2.   Time
    3.   Length
    4.   Height
    5.   Width

9.2   Abstract Values

Values have born during the Big Bang. Measurable, hand-touchable values are such as length, width and height. These are best understood as related to a body (pieces) dimensions.

On the other hand during the Big Bang, born the values that can not see, such as the time. The concept of time is relative, as it is commonly perceived. In other cases a certain time period is long, others short. This also when several people are looking at things, they are seen as different scale with respect to time. Proportionality is sometimes directly comparable, in other cases conceptually understandable.

As an example, we can choose the desired dimensions. The form chosen, for example, the rod can be determined by weighing 1 kg/m. When cutting a length of 2 m from the rod, is selected length, but not included in the weight. Weight on the bar will be allways 2 kg of the same length piece. A similar situation arises in the numerous issues, because unconsciously, by determining the value, the other values are determined.

Cut a 0.1 m long rod and place it between the supports, stating that a stiff rod. After this cut another rod length of 0.2 m and correspondingly supported rod bends about two times more. Can you say how much the rod bends 42 m long? You say the length is not possible for a rod. You also say the rod bends eight times, when the span is doubled. In the deflection formula the span is to the third power. Here you are wrong, because only need to change the flow of ideas. 100 m sprinter is a rigid rod as an example, tirelessly, ie not bending the runner races one hundred meters. Runner does not even get tired even when 200 m race, but the execution time is twice the time used to one hundred meters running. Runner is also capable of a Marathon journey, but the used time time bends as the time increase. Both runs are calculated values.

The illustrated pentagon image has three dimensionality ie length, width, and height. Variable time (dilation) to moving and permanent things, as well as a fixed proportionality. Through these, the method is calcutated reality. Some things are moving, some as a surface area and some volume based calculations. Things can often cross calculate in many meanings.

What about the time? Everything has an opposite pair such as cold - hot, white - black etc. In physics time is connected to the movement of the phenomenon. Equivalent Proportional Calculation (EPC) is not so much seconds than time dilation. Of this point of view, time is attached to time-space, as well as to value space in products and phenomena. (258)

10.   Golden Ratio 1.618 Calculation

Φ + 1  =  Φ x Φ              Φ (fii) = 1,618

Φ2 - Φ - 1 = 0                Φ2     = 2,618

Ratio of 2.618 is formed when an ellipse is drawn inside a circle, and relationship to each other has a Golden Ratio of 1.618. Pythagoras studied a circular shape, but gave up the shape of the difficulties of numbers. The ratio is linked to the strength formation of the load cases.


  ax2 + bx + c = 0


   x  =   -b  ±   SQRT  (b2  - 4ac ) 


  a =  1

  b = -1

  c = -1 


  Φ =   1 ±  SQRT ( 5)


  Φ = 1,6180339887498948482045868343656

 SQRT (5)    =  2,2360679774997


  1 + 2,2360679774997   = 1,61803398874989


  1 - 2,2360679774997   = 0,61803398874989



  Φ = 2 cos (Pii /5)            (in radians)

  Φ = 0,5 sec (2 pii / 5)

  Φ = 0,5 csc (pii / 10)



1.032 = 1.06 => 1.062 = 1.12 => 1.122 = 1.25 => 1.252 = 1.56 => 1,56 x 1,03 = 1.618 => 1.6182 = 2.618 => 2.618 -1 = 1.618 => 1.618 -1 = 0.618 => 0.618 x 1.618 = 1 => 0.618 / 1.618 = 0.382 => 0.382 + 0.618 = 1 => 4 x 1.618 /1.03 = 6.28 => 1.618 x 2 /1.03 = 3.14


Ratio of 1.618 is an interesting one, as the examples show. These do not need to learn. It is enough to be familiar with them. Fibonacci numbers will be later joined to the Golden Ratio. Golden ratio has shown interest to mathematicians for thousands of years, but the figures have not opened up a mystery by examining the figures. From point of view of products the relationships between numbers open in a new way. This requires only the knowledge of the products. (1072)

11.   Numbers Versus EP-Calculation

Roman                      Arabic                 Factors

    I                                 1                         1.00                    (1.03 - 1.06 - 1.12 )

    II                                2                         1.25

    III                               3                         1.60

    IIII                              4                         2.50

    IV                               5                         3.15

    VI                               6                         4.00

    VII                              7                         5.00

    VIII                             8                         6.30

    IX                               9                         8.00

    X                              10                       10.00

                           1 x 10 = 10            1.0 x 10.00 = 10

                           2 x 5  =  10            1.25 x 8.00 = 10      

                                                         1.60 x 6.30 = 10

                                                         2.00 x 5.00 = 10

                                                         2.50 x 4.00 = 10

                                                         3.15 x 3.15 = 10


+ numbers                  + numbers             - numbers

- proportions               - proportions          + proportions

- to abstract                + to abstract           + to abstract

- (to concrete)             + to concrete          + to concrete

- not to formulas          + to formulas          - not to formulas

- shapes values           - shapes values     + shapes values

We start of the same and we finish to the same, but just a way of looking at things differs. We do not calculate arithmetic, we calculate phenomena. We can calculate things that arithmetic numbers are not able to present, such as indication, we can see from the above calculation. The value of the Golden Ratio (1.618), mathematics does not even know in practice. With the Roman and Arabic numbers can eg. collect taxes, but EP-calculation does not it. The EP-calculation can determine the curve on the basis of the known data set. The curve, which has maybe never been determined.  (873)

21.   First Five Factors

1 - 1.03 - 1.06 - 1.12 - 1.25 - (1.618)

1.00 x 1.00  = 1.00  =>   1.00 + 1.00 = 1.00    =>   1.00 / 1,00 = 1.00

1.03 x 1.03 = 1.06   =>   1.03 + 1.03 = 1.06    =>   1.06 /1.03 = 1.03

1.06 x 1.06 = 1.12   =>   1.06 + 1.06 = 1.12    =>   1.12 /1.06 = 1.06

1.12 x 1.12 = 1.25   =>   1.12 + 1.12 = 1.25    =>   1.25 /1.12 = 1.12

Please, use your calculator

Forget decimal places

1 is something which is known

Two same known together is 1

(1 x 1 =1)

Is there something wrong in these calculations? By multiplication and addition cannot get the same result? The ratios of the Equivalent Proportional Calculation are due to this exceptional. The feature, in which the result of the calculation is the next following factor, makes the calculation method. Number 1  is something known. Behind the comma, comes the factor. Calculation 1.03 + 1.03 = 1.06 and 1.03 x 1.03 = 1.06


The first five factors are calculable. The sixth factor leads to the Golden Ratio 1.618. The Golden Ratio 1.618 gets with the help of Universal Friction 1.03. The Golden Ratio 1.618 is not directly calculated, but not losing anything. This because calculation has shape to the factor 1.03(4), in the theory of relativity. The factor 1.03 can find from pyramids thousands of years ago and finish to geometrical shapes of the visual geomerry.

                                                                                                             (0.25 = 1.25)

1.25 x 1.25 x 1.034 = 1.618     =>   1.618 /(1.25 x 1.25 x 1.034) = 1.25


Friction 1.034 joins to the ratio 1.25, which is shown in examples. The factor 1.1(2) is to the matter and energy associated, this whole joinning on the seamless manner to each other. Artists and architects know the ratio 1.618. its significance opens out for all concerning. (445)

22.   Fibonacci Numbers


                                                               1        1

                                                         1        2        1                     Pascal's Triangle

                                                    1        3         3        1

The fift row                            1       4         6        4        1                16  =  1.618


0 - 1 -  1 -  2 -  3 -  5 -  8 - 13 - 21 - 34 -  55  (Tuplavitonen- Double five)

The first eleven numbers of Fibonacci numbers

Sometimes the Fibonacci numbers begins omitting the initial 0, and the sequence is written this way. The first two numbers in the Fibonacci numbers are 0 and 1, and each subsequent number is the sum of the previous two. We find the Fibonacci numbers to begin, such as Pascal's triangle.

Relation to The Golden Ratio

      1/1 = 1000

          3/2 = 1.5000                             This is more Phi-Geometry than mathematics

                5/3 = 1.666...

                     8/5 = 1.600

                          13/8 = 1.625

                                21/13 = 1.615

                                     34/21 = 1.619         The value closest to the Golden Ratio

                                          55/34 = 1.617647    

                                                89/55 = 1.6181818

                                                       ......  =  ...............

Kultainen leikkaus                       1.61803398874989             The Golden Ratio

                                            1              Pascal's Triangle

                                    1              1      The Fifth row is 1.618

Finally, phenomena follow the formation as described, each in its own way. Pascal's triangle is a pattern that includes the formation of the description.  (397)

23.   Pascal's Triangle

Blaise Pascal did not invent the pattern, because even the ancient Chinese have known it. However, Pascal found the usefulness of the triangle to mathematical problems. From the point of view of the Equivalent Proportional Calculation; it is important that the rows are countable up to the sixth row. After the sixth row, numbers run away from the comprehensionThe sum of the half sixth row, is a high degree of accuracy the golden section ratio of 1.618. This is the 16th letter phi of the Greek alphabet.



Studies show that people are able to manage up to five simultaneous events, and in some cases, the most talented to ten events. The same idea can be used for the calculation. Number five as the proportion steps, is the limit of the proportionality.


Pascal's triangle is said to increase the sum of each row, having the coefficient 11 => 1 x 11 = 11 => 11 x 11 = 121, which can be seen in the table. There is no coefficient 11 in the nature. The coefficient 1.1 has the connection to the natural occurring phenomena, and the calculation is based partly on this coefficient, especially in the context of the deflection. (950)



                       1.1 x 1.1                  = 1.21

                  1.1 x 1.1 x 1.1             = 1.331

            1.1 x 1.1 x 1.1 x 1.1          = 1.4641

        1.1 x 1.1 x 1.1 x 1.1 x 1.1     = 1.61051

23.1   Pascal's Triangle, the Lowest Row

Pascal's triangle, the lowest line corresponds to the golden ratio, but differs a little bit from the value of 1.611. I show how the value 1.611 has the same meaning with the value of 1.618.

                         1                             1.000

                   1         1                        1.1 x 1.0 = 1.100

               1        2        1                   1.1 x 1.1 = 1.210

          1        3       3       1                1.1 x 1.21 = 1.331

      1       4        6       4      1            1.1 x 1.331 = 1..

  1     6        1        1       6      1        1.1 x 1.4641 = 1.611


Pascal's triangle relates to the acceleration of gravity 9.82 m/s2.

9.82 / 6.28  = 1.56  

Gravitational acceleration on to the Earth's surface, divided by the full angle of the circle, two times pi radians (6.28 rad) ==> the acceleration caused fatigue surface area value of 1.56. The starting point 9.82 m/s2 is inaccurate, since the science generally does not know well the gravity.

1.56 x 1.03(3) = 1.611

aikadilaatio_099995.jpgRunning and any phenomenon takes place in the context of fatigue, which causes the relative time prolongation or alternatively, the deflection increases according to increase of the distance. In this affects the Universal Friction (static fatigue coefficient) of 1.03(3). Fatigue caused acceleration surface area 1.56 times the Universal Friction of 1.03(3) is the value 1.611 of lowest row of Pascal's triangle.

1.252 x 1.03 = 1.611

The fatigue and strengthening factor 1.25 doubles the value, which is used for bearing service life, as well as to the physiological aging. Factor 1.25 belongs also to strength calculation. The EPC calculation is not decimal places, but the whole perception.

23.2   Number Combinations

On the both sides of  the Pascal's triangle, the second upright row forms natural numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, Natural numbers can be used for counting objects, which can touch by hand like screws and nuts. On the both sides of  the triangle, the third upright row forms triangular numbers 1, 3, 6, 10, 15, ... Triangular numbers are something we cannot touch. This is like the shadow of the calculation for the phenomena.


EPC calculation is partly based on factor 1,1(2). Pascal observed, that with the help of the triangle, it was possible to solve combinations of the numbers. If we will find two objects from six objects group, so how many alternatives we have? By selecting of the natural numbers 1, 2, 3... the number 6 and of this one  number to the right (or left), we have 15 alternatives. The principle is like the game of the light and shadows in the photo. We have in the example six pieces of objects. This is like the developed part on the photo that we can see. In the shadows we have the numbers of the  combinations. This number isn't out of sight, because the Pascal's triangle indicates the number 15. Objects can be touched by hand, but the combinations cannot touch by hand. Both belong together and that we cannot touch is called as the Equivalent Proportional Calculation. This is a shadow we haven't understood. (960)

24.   Zero History

maya_numerot.jpgMaya indians had a cleverly designed solar calendar, like the Egyptians had. This sophisticated calendar differed of that the conquering Europeans brought with them. Maya indians had number zero, which is not a European calendar making. Starting-point is August 11 or 13 3114 BCE.wikiped.jpg

Maya numerals

As a result of the above-mentioned, it was not always known in the Western, the year of the change of the millennium. It got a taste a few years ago of the speculations and discussions. We forgot it already, huh? The Western Gregorian calendar has been introduced in 1582.


Gregorian calendar

Below is another way to mark the Maya numerals. Picture is from the book, but the numbers are known information. Maya numeral zero in the uppper image is similar to today's American football game instrument as a ball. Zero is something real, like a birthday for any. There is something, but it does not yet have age or value. We do not need the term non-existent of existence. The ball is in the game and initially goals are 0 - 0.



Charles Seife


The Biography of a Dangerous Idea

wikiped.jpgCharles Seife

The idea of visual form of the calculation is admirable. In Western countries, the corresponding associated with playing cards, where the card value is described in the Wild (Joker), kings, queens, etc. EPC (Equivalent Proportional Calculation) does not calculate the numbers, but the phenomena. The first coefficient, the second coefficient .... the whole assembly 1. The whole assembly is not a factor, because 1 x 1 is still 1 and on the other hand 0 x 0 is 0. Everything has an opposite side, such as the electric current of the device, as it is sometimes described 0 - 1Zero-based calculation belongs to imaginary numbers, to which few people are capable. The time will certainly pass pondering, say, the essence of SQR(0). In the presented calculation the number one is like an iron bar, which is used to lever the value out of the value space. Archimedes did the levering to the hand-touchable things, now it is possible to non-touchable values. Iron bar to hand-touchable things, imaginary bar to non-touchable things. The calculation being based on the energy formula E = m c2, the speed of light is the maximum attainable speed c= 1 = 300,000 km/s, but not over this speed.

   1    -    2   -   3   -   4   -    5    -    6  -   7  -    8   -   9  -  0

0.125 - 0.16 - 0.2 - 0.25 - 0.315 - 0.4 - 0.5 - 0.63 - 0.8 - 1albert_einstein_potret.jpg


Fibonacci Number Zero

fibonacci_valokuva.jpgWhen Leonardo Fibonacci (1189 - 1250) was a young boy he travelled with his father, who was an Italian businessman. They went often over the Mediterrenean and met there Arabic sellers. On these trips Fibonacci learned the language and studied the Arabic way to calculate.

Now we have to remember that Roman "stick numbers" were difficult to calculate and there was not the figure zero, nill, nothing etc. What they did was to leave an empty place in calculation. By this way the calculation was possible using Roman numbers. Today we can undestand the Arabic way was much better. When Fibonacci was a man he teached in Bologna's University, Italy.wikiped.jpg


When Leonardo Fibonacci (1189 - 1250) was a young boy he travelled with his father, who was an Italian businessman. They went often over the Mediterrenean and met there Arabic sellers. On these trips Fibonacci learned the language and studied the Arabic way to calculate.

Now we have to remember that Roman "stick numbers" were difficult to calculate and there was not the figure zero, nill, nothing etc. What they did was to leave an empty place in calculation. By this way the calculation was possible using Roman numbers. Today we can undestand the Arabic way was much better. When Fibonacci was a man he teached in Bologna's University, Italy.

That the thing is not too simple, because the figure 0 did not come from Arabics. They were the Indians who developed a consistant use of the zero. Fibonacci learned "the nine Indian figures are: 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1. With these nine figures, and with the sign 0 ... any number may be written." When you say it in that way, it sounds as if Fibonacci did not realise that zero was a digit!

Now we are saying that we understand the number zero. How about when calculating years and there is no year zero in the BC / AD year numbering system. When the numbering goes from BC (before Christ) to AD (anno domini) the year numbering goes: 3BC, 2BC, 1BC, 1AD, 2AD, 3AD.  BC is sometimes known known as BCE (before common era) and AD as CE (common era).

Fibonacci numbers start from zero 0 - 1 - 2 - 3 - 5 - 8 ... We have learned through these pages that it belongs to Golden Ratio. How about the next one, did you know this?

e = 2.71828 18284 59045 23536 (truncated to 20 decimal places)


The formula for working out the value of e.

e = 1/0! + 1/1! + 1/2! + 1/3! + 1/4! + 1/5! + 1/6! + ....


The ! symbol means factorial. It is sometimes known as 'shriek'! 5! means 1x2x3x4x5. 1! is just 1. 0! is defined as 1 as well.


The Mayans developed a positional number system using zero. This did not influence in any European number system. It would be impossible to have modern mathematics without figure zero. It can say the figure zero is a place holder.

To get the story more interesting, I am saying the Proportional Equivalent Calculation is like the Mayans positional number system, but now having values and different phenomenas to calculate. When we have an apple, we say that we have one (an) apple. When we give it to someone, we say; we have zero apples. Note that zero is nothing but number. Apples in sentence are in pluralis form?

Back to the history. The indian mathematician Brahmagupta understood that zero was a real number and gave rules for its use in 628 AD. Something what is nothing belongs to something what we have. The same idea is in the Equivalent Proportional Calculation when we say that something we cannot touch, belongs to something we can touch. Number zero is something we cannot touch, but number one is something we can touch or understand. Zero is like a dot in a text. In sentence there is nothing behind the dot, which belongs to the sentence. It is possible write a text without dots, but what happens reading the text? (500)

25.   Number Five

viisikulmiot.jpgCalculation introduces pentagon and the writings of Pythagoras? Some books warn of this kind of thinking, as if the numbers and figures would include the concept of a mathematical object. Still, a few of the Leonardo da Vinci's name forward and backward have connection to number five and to ratio of 1.618. Visual Geometry is a reality of which has been written.

The following text does not join to the topic, still I put it here. I think it is just fun to do it in this context. You know Leonardo da Vinci as a well-known artist and you will be able to list his works. Do it now, but you say it to be impossible. Some of the preserved paintings (approx. 15 pieces), his notes including drawings, scientific diagrams, and ideas on the nature of painting, make up a significant effort to later artists, that has competes with only his contemporaries Michelangelo. Leonardo da Vinci was thus one of the most important artists of painting, without being actually a painter. Is your understanding of the phenomena at the same level with your knowledge of the Leonardo da Vinci? You know a lot, but you do not know everything. Perhaps you wish to read more about my writing. If the calculator in your hand does not present the same as I write, please leave my website. I grant you this with pleasure, to go to back to the fantasy world. The above sentence, as I believe the calculator to tell more of the real world than the idea world combined which are not demonstrable.


25.1   Area of ​​the Circle

a) Radius  r = 1

A = π x r = 3.14

b) Radius  r = 2

A = π x r = 12.56

 1 - 1.03 - 1.06 - 1.12 - 1.25 - 1.6 - 2 - 2.5 - 3.15 - 4 - 5 - 6.3 - 8 - 10 (- 12.5)

Full Angle 360o
2 x π rad =6.28 rad.  

1 - 1.03 - 1.06 - 1.12 - 1.25 - 1.6 - 2 - 2.5 - 3.15 - 4 - 5 - 6.3 - 8 - 10

6.28 rad / 2 = 3.14 rad

1 - 1.03 - 1.06 - 1.12 - 1.25 - 1.6 - 2 - 2.5 - 3.15 - 4 - 5 - 6.3  - 8  - 10

3.14 rad / 2

1.570796 rad   => 1.03 x 1.5707 rad = 1.618

1 - 1.03 - 1.06 - 1.12 - 1.25 - 1.6 - 2 - 2.5 - 3.15  - 4 - 5 - 6.3  - 8  - 10


SQRT (1.570796)  = 1.2533

6.28  rad / 5 = 1.256 rad

1 - 1.03 - 1.06 - 1.12 - 1.25 - 1.6 - 2 - 2.5 - 3.15 - 4 - 5 - 6.3  - 8  - 10

SQRT (1.2533)  = 1.12

1 - 1.03 - 1.06 - 1.12 - 1.25 - 1.6 - 2 - 2.5 - 3.15 - 4 - 5 - 6.3  - 8  - 10


SQRT (1.12)  = 1.06

1 - 1.03 - 1.06 - 1,12 - 1.25 - 1.6 - 2 - 2.5 - 3.15 - 4 - 5 - 6.3  - 8  - 10


SQRT (1.06)  = 1.03

1 - 1.03 - 1.06 - 1.12  - 1.25 - 1.6 - 2 - 2.5 - 3.15 -4 - 5 - 6.3  - 8  - 10

The above is visual geometry and calculatings, without apparent patterns. After all, we can not see the phenomena themselves, although they certainly exist. On the other hand, we know well phenomena consequences. They possess (owns) in many cases, the above form in one way or another. Why the title of this page is "Number Five", even if it is not present on the page. The reason for this is that I'm trying to tell you on this page, that all is not possible to see. I could tell of five finger used to open the computer. Five fingers, which the early counting is based on and continue to only image on this page, pentagon. (125)

26.   Five Basic Calculation Methods

The Equivalent Proportional Calculation needs of these four basic calculation methods.

                                  Adding                                             Subtraction

                                 1 + 1= 2                                              2 - 1 = 1 


Multiplication                                             Division

1 x 2 = 2                                                 2 / 1 = 2

Modularity Theorem Figures


Basic arithmetical operations are known. Modular numbers are to many unidentified concept. Modularity Theorem numbers belong to the mathematics extraordinary  and amazing creatures. They are however deep concepts of the mathematics. 1900's mathematician Martin Eichler keep modularity shapes to be one of the five basic arithmetical operations. Others are adding, subtraction, division and multiplication. Many mathematicians control well four basic arithmetical operations, but the fifth it's said to be productive to difficulties. Modularity Theorem shapes key feature is the symmetry of the enormous diversity. The piece is symmetrical if it can be transformed in a certain way so that it afterwards appears to be unchanged. Modularity theorem shape it is impossible draws or even imagines. Taniyama and Shimura examined modularity theorem shapes can be moved, turn, change between, reflect and rotate extremely in many ways. In any case their preserving unchangeable. (11)

27.   Five Way to Handle the Change

Figure five is important in the Equivalent Proportional Calculation. For Example the Pascal's Triangle has five calculated rows.

27.1   Functions and numbers

                     Mathematical analysis                         Vector calculation


                              Chaos theory                                    Differential equations

                                                           Dynamic systems

The photo from Wikipedia Encyclopedia


28.   Equivalent Proportional Calculation (EPC)

With the help of the EPC, can calculate known. In addition to this, get parallel information of phenomena. In physics, things are related to gravity and the speed of light. If the mathematics is the light of the sense. The EPC is the result through the shadows. Often shadows picture matters, which in the light are invisible. A comparable event has the photo, where the dark is towards light, and can do not differ details from both of them. We can develope the photo, so that the darkness will get more light. Black-and-white film negative has the opposite colours, darkness and lightness are in the opposite position. The principle of developing the photo: The underexposed negative works to get the some kind of photo, the overexposed does not work.


With the help of calculation, it is possibility to illuminate matters and values. We change thoughts to the unidentified shadows world. In our thoughts, we are in noted and trustworthy company, when we become familiar with the calculation. After the arithmetical operation, we are there, where we would be using calculating formulas. We are not studying formulas, we shape the whole picture. The thought of the EPC as a calculation possibility is thousands of year old. Today science better strengthen this than reject the idea. Taday EPC is an overall view of material and of the values formation in a products. Pages take the shape during the writing. The appearance of the pages, content and location changes have their continuing process. Descriptive to these pages is, that they are like blocks in the game of the children. From the construction to another they are accompanied seamlessly to each other.

You can start  to read from several points. This does not mess your entire picture. Calculation will never be completed, this unmarked, any more than any other act in connection with the information. We will not know anything definitive. Here we move to Equivalent Proportional Calculation, which consists of several different math or rather the examination of phenomena.


Visual geometry

Indicates geometric patterns include the structure of the phenomena.


Some phenomena get a parallel review of their formation.

Strength calculation

Strength calculation of steel turns out to other phenomena.


Physical and physiological phenomena, originating from the big bang and gravity.


In addition to calculating the themes include quality and its calculation.


Products may also play a role in explaining the technical and the census. In addition to products, there is a virtual company with numerous products.


Last, but certainly not meaningless is history. Without which we would not be here. History is a separate part, but also included into many pages.

The idea of pages is, any page to be able to join other pages, because the calculation is a mathematical structure.

29.   EPC and Visual Geometry

Equivalent Proportional Calculation (EPC) is an approach to understand the structure of the world, the sense in which it affects everyday life. It is startling to read of the three calculations and find that you are writing of two other calculations. Because these are my pages, I can write this. I understand the idea behind the four calculations, but the Category Theory will not open to me. This unintentionally, that the calculation would not have any place alongside the others. (341)


        Equivalent Proportional Calculation                               Visual Geometry


                 Set Theory                                                     Category Theory            
   Mathematical Logic


More information from the Wikipedia


30.   The Emergence of the Proportionality

viisikulmiot.jpgBefore the Big Bang, there is not the time or place for the event. All matter is sealed to the point and which is smaller than the size of a electron. Point exploded. What happened then, has the science described accurately to this day. At the same can detect the born 20/80 rule, which describes a pentagon. One event of the five is responsible for the 80% of the overall impact on.

At the beginning of the Big Bang came into existence hydrogen and helium. Other elements were missing, and no life or planets is possible of the above-mentioned substances. It is often thought interstellar space emptiness, but science proves it to be a sparse material. Immediately after the Big Bang was 80% hydrogen and 20% helium. Today, the space is also heavier chemical elements and molecules of the amino acid to ethyl alcohol.
We do not question the law-like 20/80 rule of thumb. The rule meaning that 20% of events covering 80% of the events. Left handed people is the amount of about 20%, and very small part of the vocabulary of the language is used very much and a very large part for the extremely low.

80% of a company's profits come from 20% of its customers
80% of a company's complaints come from 20% of its customers
80% of a company's profits come from 20% of the time its staff spend
80% of a company's sales come from 20% of its products
80% of a company's sales are made by 20% of its sales staff
Relationship can also be used to describe the phenomena which it does not fit.  (323)

41.   Mendeleev's Predicted Elements

dmitri_mendelejev.jpgIn the early days chemists discovered that the substance can not be confused with each other at random. Certain relationships were maintained when mixed with substances. This was evidence on behalf of atoms. Atomic Weights did not receive attention, while they were difficult to measure. Atomic weight at first had no discernible congruence. This was when the observations were only sixty for all elements. It showed that the atomic weight had not to do with the chemical property. Russian Dimitri Mendeleev (1834-1907) graduated a chemist, and began the state's payroll classified as oils.

In this work, he was suddenly reminded of classified materials, including the elements. He placed the atomic weights of the substancesAssumed that some elements were not found and some atomic weights to false. Thus he got the elements to locate in the regular places. We are familiar with the periodic table of elements. The Proportional Equivalent Calculation is much the same with the periodic table of elements. Every phenomenon, and even product has its own place in the value space.  (910)

42.   Everything Has a Location

42.1.   Alphabet

Alphabet describe the calculation having the idea, in which all of the letters shall be located to their own location. When calling the people in order of the names, can be roughly inferred when it is your turn. In contrast, letters in the name have closely fixed sites, in which case the names Laura and Noora are recognizable all over the world. Noora's name may still remain or be added too the second letter o. In alphabetical order, each letter has an accurate pre-set to the location, the order we first learn. The letters form the names, things and words. The words form sentences which explain that surrounds us

It is probably absurd idea, other claims in this case?

42.2.   Letters

In a similar way as the alphabet, numbers shall be determined in position relative to each other. It is known the number five to be two integers from the number three, as well as the number seven. A similar situation is in all the other numbers.

Again, it is probably absurd to claim otherwise?

As well as letters form words, digits (1, 2, 3. 4 ...) represent numbers. For example, the number 585 is composed of three digits, precisely determining a certain amount. The numbers represent the corresponding significance of the calculations, the letters represent in words. For example, the name (with great certainty) indicates sex. Another example of physics way to determine the power through the mass and acceleration. Third example of the addition, which is dominated by a large majority of people.

Laura = a girl (woman)

F = m x a

3 + 4 = 7

42.3.   Celestial Bodies

Celestial bodies have strictly limited places and their synchronized movement determine the time relative to each other. As an example of prediction of lunar eclipses thousands of years to come. This is known for so long, we really do not know it anymore.

42.4.   Timestamps

Seconds, minutes, hours, days, months, and years have their known position. Similarly, the seasons of the year come to order, like many things in this world.


42.5.   Train Stations

When travelling by train, coming train stations are in the same order in which they were left behind. The circumference train tracks are not in many places. Even then stations are always in the same order, which enables the train schedule. Phenomena values are like train stations along the line, allowing the determination of the value of its location in the distance.

42.6   Situation today

We do know how to calculate the amounts, phenomena, etc.. Ad libitum, but we can not say the change of the phenomenon without counting formulas. What about when the phenomenon has not a simple calculation model? The Equivalent Proportional Calculation will be helpful in this regardHow is that possible? It is precisely in such a way, as you understood the previous reading. There is a place for everything, so the same to values and they just have lever up. (864)


43.   Proportion Numbers

1 -  1.25 - 1.6 - 2 - 2.5 - 3.15 - 4  - 5  - 6.3  - 8  - 10

1 - 1.008 - 1.015 - 1.03 - 1.06 - 1.1(2) - 1.25 - 1.6 - 2 - 2.5 - 3.15 - 4 - 5 - 6.3 - 8 - 10

1 x 1.25 = 1.25                                           1 x 1.008 = 1.008

      1.25 x 1.25 x 1.03 = 1.618                         1.008 x 1.008 = 1.015


0 -  0.25 - 0.6 - 0.2 - 0.25 - 0.315 - 0.4  - 0.5  - 0.63  - 0.8  - 1

      1.6 x 2 = 3.15                                   .         2 x 1.008 = 1.015

         2 x 2.5 = 5                                                 2 x 1.015 = 1.03

            2 x 3.15 = 6.3                                            1.015 x 1.015 = 1.03

               4 x 1.6 = 6.3                                              2 x 1.03 = 1.06

                  1.6 x 6.3 = 10                                            1.03 x 1.03 = 1.06

                     8 x 2 = 16 ...  jne.                                       2 x 1.06 = 1.12 ....etc.

1.618 is something, that variates. In others the idea of the proportion numbers is simple. The first time you do not believe that multiplying and adding you are getting the same. Pascal's triangle signals from the left (addition) and right (multiplication) being the same. The symmetry means that your left hand is the same like your right hand. Put hands together and you see it. (874)

2 + 2 = 4    when you say     2 x 2 = 4

Pascal's Triangle Symmetry

==>                                          <==

1                        1                     1

1.1                  1     1                 1.1

1.21            1     2      1             1.21

1.331        1     3      3     1        1.331

44.   Ratios Adding and Multiply

1 - 1.008 - 1.0015 - 1.03 - 1.06 - 1.12 - 1.25 - 1.6 - 2.0 - 2.5 - 3.15 - 4 - 5


          1.0082 = 1.015                  1.008 rounded value of 1.0075

=>      1.0152 = 1.03

=>      1.032   = 1.06

=>      1.062   = 1.12

=>      1.122   = 1.25

=>      1.252   = 1.57

=>      1.57 x 1,03 = 1.618

 The coefficient can add of multiply by itself, but the result is the same


1.015 + 0.015 = 1.03   tai     1.015 x 1.015 = 1.03    Universal friction

1.03 + 0,03 = 1.06        or     1.03 x 1.03 = 1.06

1.06 + 0.06 = 1.12       tai     1.06 x 1.06 = 1.12        Pascal's row factor 1.1(2)

1.12 + 0.12 = 1.25        or     1.12 x 1.12 = 1.25        General ageing factor

The asymmetry arises after factor of 1.25, in relation to the number five in the calculation. This because five values ​​of the phenomena are often directly detectable, then comes the dusk, without the appropriate review procedure. Number five is the basic value of the calculation.We can read of the history the meaning of number five, and how it is a well-known number before Equivalent Proportional Calculation. An example in this context, for example, by Pythagoras.

1.25 x 1.25 = 1.57

1.57 x 1.03 = 1.618.

1.618 x 1.618 = 2.618

1.618 + 1 = 2.618 

EPC calculation is not decimals, but the whole picture. By placing the digits in the computer, the result of decimal places is not necessary the value of the Ratios. Understanding entities, thenratios are forming a high-resolution calculation, because ratios compensate their inside erros. In the stacker example the 48-gram precision according to machine plate, provide information in relation to the hundreds of calculations and tests. Finally we do not know whether there was a starting point stacker properly sized, as the calculation does not give an answer to it. The starting point, however, is the most experienced companies to be able to plan properly dimensioned products.  (908)

45.   Various Measure Units

Metric and inch world are related to the golden ratio of 1.618. Luckily and explained these two wolds have the same meaning. At first will be described the meter, which is not a coincidence, and after this inch. A very small number of people know the origin of these both dimensions. It is a good to check visually the mutual relationship between meter, kilometer, mile and inch.

1.0 - 1.25 - 1.6 - 2.0 - 2.5 - 31.15 - 4.0 - 5.0 - 6.3 - 8.0 - 10.0

                          1 m   -    1.618 km                                                           1000 m

                          1 cm       -     1 Inch = 2.5 cm

                          1 Inch     -       Mile                         =                63.700 x 1 Inch

I told once of the strength calculation method to one Engineer. He said, he was specialized in strength calculation. Viewing calculations he said, "Calculations do not include mm measuring units. We have been taught that, the calculation must be made in millimeters, and he does not care the other units." I was speechless of this opposition, with regret on behalf of millions of people using inches and pounds. I could imagine being in ancient Rome to present the Arabic numbers, and particularly the number zero, which they lack. Empty place, however, they were able to leave between calculation. An argument could be the empty does not need any number. Second argument could be the book keepers can easy change the zero to six or nine number, but with Roman numbers this was not so easy. What are your arguments against EP-Calculation:)

Calculating has the idea, ​​the units can be calculated with each otherwithout changing the outcome. This realization can be difficultbut we understand the different measuring units in the worldWe consider first the Golden Ratio of 1.618kilometer length of 1000 m and mile length of 1609 m. In the calcution there is between them a 9-meter error that affects to the third decimal placeThe length of 25 mm has the correlation to calculation factor 2.5. From this continuing one Inch is the 63.700 part of the mile, in other words the factor 6,3. Different measures, does not necessary mean a problem, so it can mess some units which each other. However, the calculation stays in the SI-System. (996)

46.   Description of the Patterns Through the Proportionality

viisikulmiot.jpgThe proportionality can be described as patterns. Pentagon is looking like a truss of its upper part. Drawing a regular pentagon, as shown, and the determination of the truss slanted chords to 100 cm long => Horizontal line is 100 x 1.618 m. This was determined to be the golden section ratio. 2 x 100 cm / 161.8 cm = 123.6 cm => ratio 100 / 123.6 = 0.8. Pentagon describes a simple proportionality to the events and phenomenon formation.

Pentagon is probably the most important pattern to describe the proportionality. The same is also described by an ellipse, circle and pyramid. Science of the pyramid is not related to other than the imagination. In this case, our calculator will show the associated rich imagination. (714)

161.8 cm / 2 = 80.9 cm

arc coa 80.9 cm / 100 cm = 36

36 / 360 = 0,1

1 + 0.1 = 1.1



47.   The Mathematical Creature

The philosophy of mathematics is the branch of philosophy that studies the philosophical assumptions, foundations, and implications of mathematics.


Traditionally, it was thought that metaphysics tries to reach people not just from the information, observations and biases, "behind", and to tell the truth about the ultimate matters.

How old is the idea of ​​mathematical creatures is not known with certainty. We know the roots of Western philosophy leading to Plato. The following is a description of Plato on Wikipedia; Plato was a style, a novelist, so his writings contained stories, metaphors and myths, combined with the concepts of the study. Plato's cave metaphor is well-known and can be found on the calculation in physics. Subsequent to the arrangement of Aristotle's works by scholars at Alexandria in the first century CE, a number of his treatises were referred to as τὰ μετὰ τὰ φυσικά (ta meta ta fysika; literally, "the [writings] after the Physics").

The term ontology is used in several sense. The term is also used when talking about a particular metaphysical theory or system of presumption of objects from the crowd. Referring to the same point of view, the equivalent proportional calculation perceive the geometric patterns e.g. pentagon and a drawing of Pascal's triangle to mathematical objects. These include a description of the phenomena of the world to forming the values.
Ontology is the metaphysical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations. Traditionally listed as a part of the major branch of philosophy known as metaphysics, ontology deals with questions concerning what entities exist or can be said to exist, and how such entities can be grouped, related within a hierarchy, and subdivided according to similarities and differences.
In the past time, the Greeks thought that the number 1 is not the number but rather the length of the unit. For the equivalent proportional calculation, this is an interesting finding, since the number 1 is any one of the smallest known value of the observed. For example, 100 m is the shortest athletic run distance to compete, meaning the calculating value of 1, to which further distances are compared up to to the marathon. Equivalent proportional calculation has thinking that people do not make any mathematical inventions. We find only the things that are, for example, a circle and a triangle.  (683)

48.   Domino Effect

A chain reaction that occurs when a small change causes a similar change nearby. This on in linear sequence like a line points are.The shadows in the picture show the same as the dominoes do. If the first one of dominoes has fallen, we know the last one has also fallen when the case like in the photo. When calculating we know one value of something and so we know the values of other values on the same curve. The above refers the similar cases found at a common curve. Phenomena and products belong on their own curves. Even things being on same curve is not necessary, but of this later. In the photo dominoes form an example of the curve.


The told Plato Cave Metaphor was formed of the concrete reality which casted the shadows on the cave wall, but there are shadows in many forms. When a beam has a load on, it has a measurable shadow as a defleftion. The shadow tells the needed of the beam. When an athletic run, there is a shadow in form of the time. The used time tells the needed of the event.

The calculation is more interested in physics and product formation, although no human can not be left outside. The following is an example of a curve which products and phenomena show of their values. (810)


49.   Pascal's Triangle Factor 11finnish_translation.jpg

Pascalin kolmion kerroin 11

In mathematics, Pascal's triangle row factor between the lines is 11, but in EPC calculation  the ratio is 1.1 and the following shows the value of the coefficient of 11.wikiped.jpg

Pascal's triangle

1 dim                      1                       = 1                            1 = 1

2 dim                   1     1        = 1 +1 = 2                    1.1 x 1 = 1.1

3 dim               1     2      1                                     1.1 x 1.1 = 1.21

4 dim           1     3      3     1            = 8               1.1 x 1.21 = 1.331

5 dim        1    4      6      4     1                             1.1 x 1.31 = 1.4641

The factor of the fourth dimensionality is 1.331




When the load grows twice bigger the total change grows 11 times bigger. The distance of the deflection grows eight times bigger when twice longer span. The same shows the row of the 4 dim.

That cannot see is the Universal Friction;  1.331 x 8 x 1.03(28) = 11epc_info.jpg

Time dilation table

The growth of the span has the character of one-dimensionality, with a factor of 1.25. Just as the spacecraft travels in the space 75,000 km/s and this resulting the time dilation "friction" coefficient 1.03(28). It can be noted from the table. With the progress of a three-dimensional world, the fourth dimensionality brings its own factor.

1.253 x 1.03 = 2wikiped.jpg

Time dilation of moving particles


Profile      L1000        σt          Ix           Wx          Iy          Wy                  Area

Nimike       cm      kN/cm2     cm4         cm3         cm4        cm3      kg/m    A cm2

HEB100      518       2.2        450         90         167       33.5       20.4      26

Table:       When span of 519 (518) cm => deflection 0.518 cm

Deflection of the Girder Weight;

The girder weight

     10.36 m x 20.4 kg/m =  2,08 kN


f = Deflection

f = 5 x F x L3 / 384 x E x  I

f = 3.279 cm

Deflection of the Concentrated Force;

F = 1 kN

f = F x L3 / 48 x I x E

f = 2.499 cm

Total Deflection;

3.279 cm + 3.251 cm = 5.800 cm

5.800 cm / 518 cm = 11.2

1 - 1.12 -1.25



(factor 1.12)

Calculation is not decimal placing  (898)

50.   Exponential Value Curve

Domino blocks indicates an exponential value curve, as the most phenomena follow. The two lowest values of a curve are the two first blocks. In photograph, these blocks are horizontal, which in this case, imagines a straight line as 1 +1 = 2 The following blocks are not on this line. The value of a product or phenomenon, representing the value point on the curve. Between the two first smallest points of the whole, be drawn straight line. This determines the Fibonacci numbers 1 - 1 - 2.


Distance between the blocks, describes the distance of the value points on the curve. If the distance is too small, blocks do not fall over. If too large distance, they do not reach each other. The smallest whole, is the size of the block. Domino block location specify the shape of the curve, when falling one above the other. EPC has a similar place-holding calculation method.   (787)

61.  Golden Ratio

golden_ratio.jpgTwo quantities are in the Golden Ratio if the ratio of the sum of the quantities to the larger quantity is equal to the ratio of the larger quantity to the smaller one. The Golden Ratio is an irrational constant, approximately 1.61803398874989.


Golden ratio

a) From the heel to the knee  -  From the heel to the nave

b) From knee to the hip joint  -  From the nave on top of the head

In philosophy, rationality is the exercise of reason and irrationality is the opposite. EPC Calculation is coming to show irrationality to be partly wrong. Other names frequently used for the Golden Ratio are the Golden Section (Latin: sectio aurea) and Golden Mean. Other terms encountered include extreme and Mean Ratio, Medial section, Divine Proportion, Divine Section (Latin: sectio divina), Golden Proportion, Golden Cut, Golden Number, and mean of Phidias. In this calculation the Golden Ratio is denoted by the Greek lowercase letter phi φ.

( a + b ) / a = a / b = (fii) = 1,618 033 988

  5 / 3  /1.03 = 1.618     5 >  The proportional limit of the calculation  <  5             8 / 5 = 1.6

All living bodies, and machine components have the relationship.

In Other Words

Cut off the rod 100 cm into two parts, so that a longer section is 61.8 cm. The rod is cut to the golden section ratio 100 cm /61.8 cm = 1.618

A shorter length is 38.2 cm. Golden section gives a partly false impression of designation, as a certain ratio of a cutting. Golden ratio is the matter related factor, which determines the forces acting between. Dangerous sharing is a concept which can be used for modeling the drawing below.


The golden ratio as visual geometry

Pascal's triangle factor between rows 1.1, as well the strength calculation coefficient 1.12. "Cutting" can continue five times, after which the proportional limit is exceeded. The same can try folding the paper neatly five times.  (891)

62.   Golden Ratio Today

It is advisable to become acquainted on the Golden Ratio by way of the Internet pages. Commonly saying, a large part of Internet pages join to the art by mean of the composition. Some pages look at the Golden Ratio topic by way of the nature examples which can be found numerous. Later the Equivalent Proportional Calculation illuminates the nature associated calculation. We calculate also ageing fatiguing in different forms and so on. The next time we travel to watch the pyramids, we will examine them in others in thought. After all, they are also products of their time.



Become familiar with Internet pages, so the figure 1,618 remain to mind by way of the examples. On some pages there is question of commercialness, and offer to the topic associated products. The architecture gets also attention. This happens by way of thousands of years ago  prepared constructions. This beginning from the Egypt's pyramids and continuing by way of Greek building to today's space concept. From Internet material we would get a book, but the knowledge of the book in any case would remain for the scratch of surface. In our country has been made at least two university final works of the Golden Section Ratio associated mathematics. These works have like the other comparable final works, not solved the mean of the Golden Section Ratio. The intention of the final works is of course not to solve the Golden Ratio's secret. The golden ratio has fascinated mankind for thousands of years. When it is looked at, the subject has dropped the viewer down. This the Equivalent Proportional Calculation (EPC) will no longer do. (877)

63.   Golden Ratio in the Literature

pencil.jpgThere are any Finnish-language book of the Golden Section. The word in the English language, does not change the situation of the Golden Mean, Golden Section, etc. The number ratio is still open, like thousands of years before that. The librarian's proposed the Encyclopedia Britannica Encyclopedia.  The book had any article of the Golden Section. The book is instead full of references to articles that mentioned the Golden Section. The book's edition, however surprised on its freshness.

The Lahti City Library-Regional Library search by word - Golden Section - the library assistant will bring a handful of examples, mainly from magazines.

The pencil in the picture has not broken having the Golden Section ratio. The Golden Section is involved in the fracture, and explains first the human bones, and later, through the strength of the steel. We get the information about the relationship, related to engineering design and conceptual values​​. The word Golden Section, gives in Finnish language an unambiguous picture of the word. In general, the word corresponds the English word of the Golden Section. When compared to the words in the English language, we get three different significance.

Golden Mean

It will be understood through philosophy.

Golden Section

A Line Sharing in the Golden Section ratio of 8:5.


Golden Ratio

Things to consider the whole through the number ratio of 1.618.

We read of the Golden Section in the history. We enjoy the wonderful history of people thinking skills, which has the same meaning, with the calculation. We are surprised, of their thinking far-sightedness. After this, we calculate examples of mortal and immortal things. Finally, the presentation provides a comprehensive whole that has not been previously presented. Almost all of the calculation is done in a manner which is different from that we are learned. What we have been taught, has not formed a coherent examination of issues between phenomena. Presentation is not history, but to this day, and for the future. Comments on matters are related to the proportional nature of the surrounding reality. Pythagoras, Albert Einstein. Johannes Kepler, Archimedes, etc.  (889)

64.   Paper Folding Five Times

paperin_taitto.jpgIn Equivalent Proportional Calculation number five is important. Please, make a test. Take a normal copy paper. The size you normal use. Fold the paper. Halve the paper as DIN size A4 to A5 etc. You can do this five times, but you need more than bare hands to fold the paper over five times. In calculation it is possible to determine things five to six steps like the Pascal's triangle shows.

At first you think that you can fold the paper more than five times, but it is not possible in normal condition. Later we have more steps and we can determine things even between different phenomenas. This a little like we have calculated in Pascal's triangle examples. The calculation shows the relationship between foldings and finally the Universal Friction Factor 0,03(28).

1.  1 /2 = 0.5 (5.0)

2.        0.5 /2 = 0.25 (2.5)

3.                   0.25 /2 = 0.125 (1.25)

4.                                0.125 (/2) = 0.062 (0.63)

5.                                              0.062 /2 = 0.03125 (0.315)

aikadilaatio_099995.jpgThe Universal Friction Factor 1.03(28) derivates from formula E = m c2. You know the formula, but the factor 1,03 formulates phenomenas around us. 

When figure one (1) this means the known value of something. 1 x 1 =1.

The factor is behind the comma 1 x 1.03 = 1.03 etc. Fold the paper and you understand this.


65.   Ratio Between Kilometer and Mile

Sometimes is asked a question of the (equivalent proportional) calculation and its purpose. The first idea is often the calculation beeing of the proportionality between the different units. Let us take at the first the kilometer and mile ratio which turns out to be determined by the nature of the golden section 1.618.

One kilometer is 1.000 meters. Inch is 2.54 cm => (which leads to) foot 12 inches or 30.48 cm => mile 5280 feet = 1609 m. In the calculation kilometer and mileage are calculated on each other. Pascal's triangle defines at the fifth row, the mile length of 1611 m. The inch dimensional and the SI system world are able to calculate using their own dimensions. In this sense the calculation is a study of the coefficients between units. Connecting the length of a mile to Visual Geometry (geometry to your eyes), is found Pascal's triangle, the fifth row to form a mile length (two meters accuracy). The world is not as accurately created, that it is worth a number of decimal places to be calculated.


                         1                             1 000 m                           (kilometer)

                   1         1                        1,1 x 1,0 = 1 100 m

               1        2        1                   1,1 x 1,1 = 1 210 m

          1        3       3       1                1,1 x 1,21 = 1 331 m

      1       4        6       4      1            1,1 x 1,331 = 1 464 m

  1     6        1        1       6      1        1,1 x 1,464 = 1 611 m           (mile)

Difference of the Pascal's triangle-assigned mile length is 2 m / 1 611 m x 100= 0.12 %. The trip as a length is one-dimensional way forward that fatigues through the Gravity. In the end, everything has the same meaning, and in many cases to be compared with each other. The first row of Pascal's triangle is the physical world index of zero dimension. Fifth, the lowest row is a factor in terms of proportionality. The golden section factor of 1.618 is related to everything in nature and the large number of art and structures. Strength in machine building, physics and physiology will get their share of these reviews. All studied are in one volume, though these are currently made ​​of mixed reviews chaos. All laws derives from the Big Bang, which should not be forgotten.  (584)

66.   Different Units of Measurement

1,0 - 1,25 - 1,6 - 2,0 - 2,5 - 31,15 - 4,0 - 5,0 - 6.3 - 8,0 - 10,0

                      1 km     -    1,618 km

                      1 cm      -   1 Inch = 2,5 cm

                      1 Inch    -    Mile  =  63.700 x 1 Inch

Once I talked of calculation method to one Engineer. He said, he is specialized in strength calculation. He was looking my calculations and said, "Calculations do not include mm measuring units. We have been taught that, the calculation must be made in millimeters, and he does not understand the other units." I am speechless of this opposition, with regret on behalf of millions of people who do not know this when using inches and pounds. I can imagine being in ancient Rome to present the Arabic numerals, and particularly the number zero, which they lack. Empty, however, they were able to leave between.

Calculating has the idea, ​​the unit may be the mind of the user. These can be calculated with each other, without changing the outcome. This realization can be difficult, but we unerstand the different measuring units in the world. We consider first the Golden Ratio of 1.618, kilometer length of 1000 m and mile length of 1609 m. In the calcution there is between them a 9-meter error that affects to the third decimal place. The thought as the length 25 mm is the ratio of the calculation. From this by continuing one Inch is the 63.700 part of the mile, in other words in accordance with the ratio 6,3. Different measures, does not mean a problem. We can calculate such as earlier and mix the measures for calculating.  (56)

mutterit_ja_avaimet.jpgFrom the point of view of the calculation, dimensions are often together countable, without modifications of the system measurement. For example 20 mm screw having the factor 1,25 is 25 mm (in practise M24 sized), which is one inch.

From this on having the factor 1,25, pipe diameter 33,7 mm is 1" pipe in other words 1,25 x 25 mm = 31,25 mm. Through the Equavalent Proportional Calculation, these two dimensional worlds come closer each others. Because the strength calculation is made  finally, can calculations have been mixed between. If the pipe is not sufficient as the cross-sectional area, pipe's wall thickness will add. For the next we would have to select measurement 33,7 x 1,25 = 40 = 42 mm (pipe or screw). From extraordinary sized components, there is better available inch sized products. I continued on the purpose from 25 mm screw to the pipe, which are available both the metric and inch sized.

In pipes there are any difficulties after the initial inconvenience. Threads has the same and from outside a nut can surprise in American or in Japanese product, by being on the other measurement as we assumed. When I did install the exhaust pipe and I observed the missing nuts to be metric sized, but they were UNF or UNC threads. You gess, did I have them.

42 x 1,25 = 63 mm  - 80 mm - 100 mm - 125 mm - 160 mm - 200 mm - 250 mm

Different kind of cross-sections of materials and components.  (375)

67.   Living and Non-living Matter Ratios

67.1   Movement

1 - 1,008 - 1,0015 - 1,03 - 1,06 - 1,12 - 1,6

Wheel is considered as the most important invention of mankind, it describes the movement. Movement related coefficients are from 1 to 1.618. In the Visual Geometry the shape of a circle is to visualize the wheel.


67.2   Stationary Movement

1,6 - 2,0 - 2,5 - 3,15 - 4 - 5

Rocking chair rockers visualizes the Stationary movement. In a Matter occurs the corresponding reciprocating movement when the matter is increased when stretched and bounced back. In the visual geometry, two curved bands (rockers) describes an ellipse shape.

1,25 x 1,25 = 1,57

1,57 x 1,03 = 1,618.

1,618 x 1,618 = 2,618

1,618 + 1 = 2,618 

The ratios 1.618 and 2.618 are significant when related to the matter. it can think the living ending to the ratio of 1.25, and the ratio of 1.618 is the culmination point to a dead matter. From the ratio of 2.618 the transition takes place of a living-related circular chape to a non-living-related elliptical shape. Science finds that the dead matter has no difference compared to the living. The same shows the calculation examples, having the same procedure to crowbar deflection under load and fatigue of human during sports performance.


67.3   Universal friction

Coefficient 1.03 of the static fatigue is shown in the calculation examples. The coefficient value of 1.03 is connected to gravity and stopping movement. Calculation has the inverse relationship between the importance of issues, including that the movement will continue, which is observed in the time calculations. To the stopping movement such a phenomenon is fatigue, which continues the time spent. (754)



68.   Observations

68.1   Observation I

The value of a product or phenomenon, representing the value point on the curve. Between the two first smallest points of the whole, be drawn straight line

Two smallest value can define on the addition principle.From this point on, not by this way, because the values ​​would be directly determined. Some books have mentioned the exponential structure of the universe, but not explaining it, so the Equivalent Proportional Calculation has the written structure. The principle of this mentioned Fibonacci. (53)


Fibonacci Sequence 1 - 1 - 2

                                                                                 1 + 1 = 2

68.2   Observation II

The product or a value representing a point.  The curve can be drawn through three known points



The observation I determined that the first two points foms a straight line. From this point the values ​​have an exponential factor.

An example of lifting lugs; their weight can be found in the mathematical curve, where the location is placed according to known information. The known value on the curve may be located at any point. Therefore, not necessarily the minimum value, determnes other values.

In photo the 500 kg lifting lug has the smallest weight 1 kg. By calculating the 40 000 kg lifting lug weighs 175 kg and when manufactered 170 kg. The later product is 170 times bigger, but the calculated difference only 2.9 %.

Without Equivalent Proportional Calculation, there is no procedure known in the art. Calculation has the same method to conceptual value. The size or composition of the review is not relevant. This is the reason why the calculation is suitable for the examination of the products due to the benchmark.  (595)

68.3   Observation III

Concept of the Products


68.3.1.  On the basis of a known, the weight of the other similars are known


68.3.2.  On the basis of a well-known, the price of the other corresponding actions is known

    - Conditional statement


68.3.3.  A known capacity, determines the other similar capacities


68.3.4.  On the basis of a known time, other times of the corresponding activity periods are known

68.3.5.  On the basis of a known conceptual value, other similar cases are known

The observation III includes five description to determine the unknown. Many people think that the observations are contradictory, but are they on it?. We will go through a large number of inspections, based on the observations. The reviews cover the whole at a time when the individual analysis of the number becomes large. Equivalent Proportional Calculation is an unique benchmarking tool. If you do not know the benchmarking process, I will tell about it on my pages. (19)

68.4   Observation IV

verso.jpgBy knowing the smallest, there is a high probability to know the greater. If the smallest is known, the next higher is based on Fibonacci numbers. What are these so-determined, it says the calculation. Not only does the next smallest, but all of this forward.

In addition to the touchable values, this relates to non-touching values. By knowing the capacity of a 160 mm diameter screw conveyor, we know the capacity of a 400 mm screw conveyor. At the same time can be viewed the capacity of the conveyor of 1000 mm. We can calculate belt and screw conveyor capacities of all sizes, when there is sure information of a single product.        

"The smallest set the maximum"         

At the children's clinic, we got the forecast of an adult length, by knowing the length at birth and parents' lengths.  (166)

68.5   Observation V

Fixed points on the curve, determines the curve


nostokorvakkeet_500_-_40_000_kg.jpgthe condition is that the value of the product or the product dimensionality is known. According to EP-calculation, there is five dimensionalities. Width, length, height, time and proportionality.

Length and time            => fatigue

width and height            => area

width, height and length => volume


Lifting lugs in the the image describe the curve formation of the product. The corresponding curve is composed of non-material phenomenon.  (167)

68.5   Observation VI

"The curve of data points describes a set of abstract and concrete values​​."

The idea includes in to observation II, wherein on the basis of a known, the second is known. The determined can be some auxiliary factor to a calculation or a value of the product. We calculate the World Record of 1500-meter athletic run on the basis of the time. The time is a 100 meter World Record time, or some other WR time. This allows to consider any other abstract matters. Usually, however, the smaller determines the bigger one.

The calculated World Record time, on the basis of 100 m World Record time, has the accuracy of hundredths of a second. Accuracy for all running events is 1-1.5%. Equivalent Proportional Calculation, it is not just running events, but of all calculated. Physiological values ​​change, but even then the proportionality of values is maintained.

Calculated examples are initially tabulated and known values. Calculated can be any type, but the comparability of cases are surprisingly similar. Or, is this a surprise? The calculated are concretical or abstract examples. This is an image, and the
equivalent concepts aret light and shadow. In reality we can not touch either. Still, the light reveals details in the shadows. Calculation reveals the shadows of mathematical values ​​in products and phenomena.  (903)

69.   Measures - Ratio 1.618



                                                             100 mm

                (100 mm /1.618)

                                                             61.8 mm

               (100 mm - 61.8 mm)

                                                          38.2 mm

Measuring tape lengths of 6.2 cm and 3.8 cm have the Golden Ratio 1.618. Proportionality is not a decimal number, but an understanding of the relative position of the phenomena formation. Dimensions above are in relative position to each otherOne value knowing the other values are known. Dimensions of the mutual position, they are actually occurring proportionality of the issues and values​​. Dimesions are not only to the photo placed dimensions.

Being familiar with the Golden Ratio 1.618 and of the proportionality in issues and values​​, you do know the comparable of dimension 3.8 cm which is 6.2 cm. The combination of these is 3.8 cm + 6.2 cm = 10 cm. In other words the entity.

The known value 3.8 cm => second value is 3.8 cm x 1.618 = 6.18 cm = rounded to 6,2 cm

The whole is 3.8 cm + 6.2 cm = 10 cm. (662)

21.6 2018*08:00